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Full text of "Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for M109A6 Howitzer (Paladin) Operations"

August 2000 

F M 3-09.70 

Tactics, Techniques, and 

Procedures for 

M109A6 Howitzer 

(Paladin) 

Operations 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: 

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 



HEADQUARTERS, 
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 



FM 3-09.70 



Field Manual 
No. 3-09.70 



Headquarters 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

Washington, D.C., 1 August 2000 



Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for 
M109A6 Howitzer (Paladin) Operations 



Contents 

Page 
PREFACE vi 

Chapter 1 MISSION, ORGANIZATION, AND SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 1-1 

Mission 1-1 

Organization 1-1 

Force XXI Organization 1-3 

System Description 1-4 

Chapter 2 DUTIES OF KEY PERSONNEL 2-1 

Battery Commander 2-1 

First Sergeant 2-2 

Firing Platoon Leader 2-2 

Platoon Fire Direction Officer 2-3 

Fire Direction Chief 2-4 

Fire Direction Computer 2-4 

Fire Direction Specialist 2-5 

Platoon Sergeant 2-5 

Gunnery Sergeant 2-5 

Paladin Chief of Section 2-6 

Gunner 2-8 

Number 1 Cannoneer 2-9 

Howitzer Driver 2-9 

Ammunition Team Chief 2-9 

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. 

Ammunition Vehicle Driver 2-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Number 2 Cannoneer 2-10 

Number 3 Cannoneer 2-11 

Number 4 Cannoneer 2-11 

Chapter 3 OPERATIONS 3-1 

Section I - Battalion Operations 3-1 

Battle Command 3-1 

Displacement 3-2 

Positioning 3-2 

Terrain Management and Coordination 3-2 

Survey Operations 3-3 

Section II - Battery Operations 3-5 

Battle Command 3-5 

Employment of Howitzers 3-5 

Reconnaissance, Selection, and Occupation of Position (RSOP) 3-6 

Artillery Troop Leading Procedures 3-8 

Section III - Platoon Operations 3-8 

Battle Command 3-8 

RSOP 3-9 

Terrain Management and Coordination 3-13 

Section IV - Section Operations 3-13 

Battle Command 3-13 

RSOP 3-14 

Section V - Occupation 3-16 

Procedures 3-16 

Section VI - Combat Service Support 3-22 

Combat Trains 3-22 

Field Trains 3-24 

Battalion Resupply 3-26 

Battery Resupply 3-29 

Platoon Resupply 3-30 

Unit Maintenance 3-31 

Casualty Evacuation 3-32 

Chapter 4 DELIVERY OF FIRES 4-1 

POC Responsibilities 4-1 

Fire Direction 4-10 

Mission Processing 4-11 

Artillery Technical Rehearsals 4-12 

POC Occupation Procedures 4-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

POC Post-Occupation Improvement 4-13 

Chapters COMMUNICATIONS 5-1 

Battalion Communications 5-1 

Battery Communications 5-1 

Planning Considerations 5-4 

Communications Parameters 5-4 

Battery Wire System 5-7 

Chapter 6 UNIT DEFENSE 6-1 

Responsibilities of Key Personnel 6-1 

Conduct of the Defense 6-2 

Defensive Methods 6-4 

Appendix A DEGRADED OPERATIONS A-1 

Degraded Platoon Operations Center A-1 

Degraded Subsystem Battle Drills A-3 

Reciprocal Laying Procedures A-5 

Appendix B AUTOMATED COMMAND AND CONTROL B-1 

Commander's Criteria B-1 

Automatic Fire Control System B-1 

Initialization B-3 

Howitzer Subscriber Table (HOW;SBT) B-5 

Howitzer Movement (HOW;MOVE) B-5 

Howitzer Update (HOW;UPDATE) B-5 

Howitzer Ammunition (HOW;AMOUP) B-6 

Ammunition and Fire Unit Update Message (AFU;UPDATE) B-6 

Fire Unit Ammunition Update Message (AFU;AMMO) B-6 

Request for Data Message (HOW;REQUEST) B-6 

Sensor-to-Shooter Operations (Linked) B-7 

Fire Direction Procedures B-7 

Be Advised That (BAT) Messages B-8 

Unable to Execute (UTE) Messages B-1 1 

Appendix C SAMPLE SAFETY QUALIFICATION CHECKLISTS C-1 

Qualification Tasks C-1 

Appendix D EXAMPLE PLATOON OPERATIONS CENTER CONFIGURATION D-1 

Introduction D-1 

Inside View, M577/M1068 D-3 



in 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Other Improvements, M577/M1068 D-4 

Inside View, Tent Extension D-5 

Appendix E ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS E-1 

Section I - Army Environmental Awareness E-1 

General Policy Statements E-1 

Section II - Paladin Specific Environmental Considerations E-2 

Field Activities E-2 

Munitions E-3 

Hazardous Material and Hazardous Waste E-3 

Maintenance E-5 

Supply E-5 

Section III - Regulatory Requirements E-7 

Laws and Regulations E-7 

Regulatory Training Requirements E-7 

Environmental Compliance Officer Responsibilities E-9 

Section IV - Environmental Risk Management E-10 

Environmental Risk Management E-10 

Appendix F MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES F-1 

Platoon Movement F-1 

Paired Movement F-3 

Movement Methods F-3 

Movement to Contact F-5 

Movement TTP F-5 

Appendix G PALADIN FIRING SAFETY G-1 

General G-1 

Boxed Safety G-1 

Unboxed Safety G-2 

Combat Safety G-3 

Illumination Safety G-4 

Appendix H SAMPLE GUNNER'S QUALIFICATION TEST H-1 

Use of Test H-1 

Standards of Precision H-1 

Assistance H-2 

Task Scoring H-2 

Qualification Scores H-2 

Equipment, Personnel, and Site Requirements H-2 

Tasks H-5 



IV 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Appendix I PALADIN HOWITZER SECTION EVALUATION 1-1 

Section Evaluation Score Sheet 1-1 

Phase I: Sample Written Test I-3 

Phase II: Preparation for Firing Operations I-7 

Phase III: Occupation 1-15 

Phase IV: Degraded Operations I-24 

Phase V: NBC Operations I-30 

Phase VI: Night Operations I-34 

Appendix J AFCS/BCS SPHEROID AND DATUM TABLES J-1 

Appendix K M93 CHRONOGRAPH MUZZLE VELOCITY SYSTEM K-1 

General Description K-1 

Environmental Information K-1 

Installation K-2 

Operational Sequence K-3 

Troubleshooting K-3 

Step by Step Procedures for Calibration K-4 

Platoon Leadership Actions K-5 

POC Responsibilities K-5 

Appendix L SAMPLE PRECOMBAT CHECKS L-1 

Survivability PCCs L-1 

PCCs to Support Essential Field Artillery Tasks L-5 

Personnel and Equipment PCCs L-9 

Glossary GLOSSARY Glossary-1 

Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography-1 

Index INDEX lndex-1 



Preface 

Field manual (FM) 3-09.70 (6-70) is focused on Paladin-unique battalion, battery, 
platoon and section operations. It sets forth the doctrine pertaining to 
organization, equipment, command and control (C2), operations, and tactics, 
techniques, and procedures (TTP) for Paladin units. It establishes the duties and 
responsibilities of key Paladin battery personnel for field operations. FM 3-09.70 
is written for the Paladin battery and platoon, as well as for the battalion 
commander and staff. 

It is designed to be used in conjunction with the appropriate FM 6-series, FM 71- 
3, equipment technical manuals (TMs), Army training and evaluation program 
(ARTEP) mission training plans (MTPs), and soldiers' manuals. 

This FM supplements doctrine and TTP outlined in FM 6-50, TTP for the Field 
Artillery Cannon Battery and FM 6-20-1, TTP for the Field Artillery Battalion. As 
applicable, those TTPs for Paladin operations which do not differ significantly 
from those described in FM 6-50 or FM 6-20-1 are not repeated in this manual. 

FM 3-09.70 ties the doctrinal approach with the training strategies outlined in 
the associated ARTE P 6-037-30-MTP, Mission Training Plan for the Con soli dated 
Cannon Battery, M102, M119, M198, M109A5, M109A6. Refer to ARTEP 6-037- 
30-MTP for specific time standards regarding Paladin operations and fire 
missions. 

The proponent of this publication is Commandant, United States Army Field 
Artillery School (USAFAS). Send comments and recommendations directly to: 

Commandant 

USAFAS 

ATTN: Warfighting Integration and Development Directorate! AT SF-D) 

Fort Sill, OK 73503-5600. 



Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not 
refer exclusively to men. 



VI 



Chapter 1 

Mission, Organization, and System Description 

This chapter provides an overview of the M109A6 howitzer (Paladin) 
battalion mission, organization, and description of key system 
components. The Paladin battalion exhibits the agility, initiative, and 
flexibility to provide timely and accurate fires in support of maneuver 
forces. The organization of the battalion and the tactics employed 
reinforce the principles of war and the tenants of Army operations as set 
forth in FM 100-5, Operations. Compared to earlier M109 series 
howitzers, the Paladin howitzer operates over more widely dispersed 
areas, processes on board technical firing data, and demonstrates the 
ability to shoot and scoot without relying on aiming circles and wirelines. 



MISSION 



1-1. The Paladin battalion strikes throughout the depth of enemy formations 
to suppress, neutralize, and destroy ground forces, direct fire weapons, 
indirect fires systems, and air defense systems. The battalion is organized 
and equipped to perform any of the four standard tactical missions (direct 
support (DS), general support (GS), general support reinforcing (GSR), and 
reinforcing (R)) or any nonstandard missions as described in FM 6-20-1, 
Chapter 1. 



BASIC TASKS 



1-2. The Paladin battalion performs tasks under the Army universal task list 
(AUTL) for the tactical level of war as defined for field artillery battalions in 
F M 6-20-1. The six major task areas for the tactical level AUTL are: 

• Deploy/conduct maneuver. 

• Develop intelligence. 

• Employ fires. 

• Perform combat service support (CSS) and sustainment. 

• Exercise C2. 

• Protect the force. 

ORGANIZATION 

1-3. The Paladin battalion is organized with a headquarters and 
headquarters battery (HHB), three firing batteries each with six howitzer 
sections (3 X 6), and a service battery (Figure 1-1). The HHB and service 
battery provide command, control, administrative, and service support for 
organic and attached elements. See FM 6-20-1 for further details on HHB 
and service battery configurations and functions. 



1-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 




Figure 1-1. Paladin Battalion Organization 

1-4. The Paladin firing battery (Figure 1-2) consists of a battery headquarters 
and two firing platoons. Each firing platoon consists of a platoon 
headquarters section, a platoon operations center (POC) comprised of fire 
direction center (FDC) section personnel, three firing sections, and an 
ammunition section. 



•• 



BATTERY 
HQ 



• • 



SUPPLY 



C*D 



••• 



FIRING 
PLATOON 



HQ 


headquarters 


FDC 


fire direction center 


POC 


platoon operations center 


AMMO ammunition 



PLATOON 
HQ 




FDC/POC 




PALADIN 

SECTION 






AMMO 










1 













Figure 1-2. Paladin Firing Battery Organization 



1-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



FORCE XXI ORGANIZATION 

1-5. Paladin battalions organized under the Force XXI series table of 
organization and equipment transition to a four battery per battalion 
configuration. The battalion consists of a headquarters, headquarters and 
service (HHS) battery and three firing batteries (Figure 1-3). 

1-6. The Force XXI Paladin firing battery consists of a battery headquarters, 
two firing platoons (each with three firing sections) and a support platoon 
(Figure 1-4). In the Force XXI battery, a battery operations center (BOC) with 
FDC takes the place of the two POC elements. The support platoon is 
comprised of a platoon headquarters, two ammunition sections, a supply 
section, maintenance section and a food service section. Elements of the 
support platoon may be consolidated at the battalion level under the HHS, or 
remain decentralized at battery level. 

1-7. The Force XXI Paladin organizational structure is currently undergoing 
testing. Emerging TTP for Force XXI Paladin organizations may be found in 
Experimental Forces Special Text 6-70, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures 
for Paladin Operations in the Army XXI Division. 




Figure 1-3. Force XXI Paladin Battalion Organization 



1-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



CSD 



•• 



BATTERY 
HQ 



• •• 



FIRING 
PLATOON 



• • 



• •• 



BOC 



SUPPORT 
PLATOON 



♦ • 



• • 



PLATOON 
HQ 



PALADIN 

SECTION 



• • 



• • 



PLT 
HQ 



AMMO 



• • 



SUPPLY 



• • 



HQ 


headquarters 


BOC 


battery operations center 


AMMO 


ammunition 


MAINT 


maintenance 



MAINT 



• • 



FOOD 
SERVICE 



Figure 1-4. Force XXI Paladin Firing Battery Organization 



SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

OVERVIEW 



1-8. The combination of M109A6 system capabilities and tactics results in 
more responsive and sustained fires for the maneuver commander compared 
to earlier M109 series howitzers. The most significant operational differences 
between the M109A6 and prior M109 series howitzers are the Paladin's 
ability to operate over a widely dispersed area and to move and emplace 
using the Paladin technology. Technology advances allow the Paladin to move 
and position within an assigned area, process technical firing data with the 
automatic fire control system (AFCS) and single-channel ground and airborne 
radio system (SINCGARS), and fire a mission without relying on surveyed 
firing points, aiming circles and wire lines. Howitzers can occupy in more 
widely varying terrain positions and can repeatedly displace, move, and 
quickly emplace with faster "ready to fire" times. 

1-9. Paladin system responsiveness is enhanced through: 

• On-board position navigation. 

• On-board technical fire direction. 

• Radio communications. 

• F reedom from wi re. 

1-10. Paladin survivability is enhanced through: 

• Built-in hardening. 



1-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Dispersion techniques. 

• 300-500 meter survivability moves. 

1-11. Chapter 3 provides more in depth discussion on Paladin tactical 
operations. The following paragraphs highlight Paladin system features. 



M109A6 PALADIN HOWITZER FEATURES 



1-12. The M109A6 Paladin howitzer is the latest product improvement to the 
original M109 155-millimeter self-propelled (SP) howitzer. The Paladin 
features improvements in the areas of survivability; reliability, availability, 
and maintainability (RAM); responsiveness; and terminal effects. Features 
include an on-board ballistic computer, secure communications, enhanced 
position and navigation system, an integrated muzzle velocity system (MVS), 
new turret, improved cannon and mount, improved ballistic and nuclear, 
chemical, and biological protection, automotive improvements, built-in test 
equipment (BITE), and driver's night vision capability (Figure 1-5). 



Muzzle Velocity 
System (MVS) 

Cannon Assembly 

- 30 Kilometer Range 

- Advanced Bore 
Evacuator 

- Improved Recoil 



Automatic/Remote 
Travel Lock 



Automatic Fire Control System (AFCS) 

- Ballistic Computations 

- Gun Drive Servos 



On-Board Navigation System 



Kevlar and Steel Lining 




Upgraded Power Plant 



Digital and Voice Radios 

Microclimate 
Conditioning 
System 



atellite Navigation 



Increased 

Ammunition 

Capacity 

New Turret 



Improved Suspension; 
No Need for Spades 
During Normal Firing 



Figure 1-5. Paladin Howitzer Features 

1-13. The M109A6 is an armored full-tracked howitzer capable of carrying 37 
complete conventional rounds and two Copperhead rounds. A crew of four 
personnel operates the howitzer. The Paladin's 155 millimeter M284 cannon 
assembly, fitted with the M182A1 mount, has a maximum range of 30 
kilometers (km) when firing a rocket assisted projectile (RAP) using the 



1-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



M203 series charge (24 km when firing an unassisted projectile). The 
howitzer has a maximum rate of fire of four rounds per minute for three 
minutes and a sustained rate of fire of one round per minute. The M109A6 
travels at speeds up to 38 miles per hour, has a maximum cruising range of 
186 miles, and a fuel capacity of 133 gallons. The Paladin weighs 
approximately 32 tons combat loaded. 

1-14. Survivability improvements include: 

• Hull and turret structure with composite spall suppression liners and 
supplemental armor. 

• Remote travel lock allows crew to emplace or displace without 
dismounting from the howitzer. 

• Relocated projectiles. 

• Segregated hydraulic components. 

• Microclimate conditioning system provides filtered and conditioned air to 
crew's protective masks and vests. 

• A fixed carbon dioxide fire suppression system for the engine 
compartment and portable units for the crew and driver's compartments. 

1-15. RAM improvements include: 

• E ngi ne cool i ng package. 

• Sealed starter and protective circuitry. 

• New alternator. 

• Final drivequick disconnects. 

• Upgraded suspension, hydraulic, and electrical systems. 

• Added the prognostic/diagnostic interface unit (PDIU), a maintenance 
diagnostic and limited prognostic testing unit. 

1-16. Armament improvements to the cannon include: 

• Redesigned interior profile of the gun tube assembly. 

• I mproved breech and recoil system designed to enhance component life. 

• Strengthened muzzle break. 

• An advanced bore evacuator. 

Automatic Fire Control System (AFCS) 

1-17. The AFCS provides position location and directional reference, a 
ballistic computer for on-board technical fire direction, a muzzle velocity (MV) 
measuring system, and gun-drive servos, which automatically orient the tube 
for deflection and quadrant. The AFCS enhancements improve 
responsiveness and survivability by permitting frequent movement through 
semi -autonomous operations. Additionally, the AFCS has an embedded 
training feature, which allows the crew to practice mission scenarios. 

1-18. The major components that makeup the AFCS include: 

• AFCS computer unit (ACU) (includes ballistic computation, weapons 
control, and communications processing circuit cards). 

• Display unit (DU). 

• Hydraulic components (manifolds, servo valves, solenoid valve, and pilot 
check valves). 



1-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• System interconnect cabling (military standard 1553 data bus). 

• Power conditioner unit (PCU). 

• Navigation system with modular azimuth positioning system (MAPS) 
components. 

1-19. The MAPS is made up of modular components combined in different 
configurations to provide survey and orientation information needs of a 
particular system. In the Paladin application, major components of MAPS 
consist of the dynamic reference unit-hybrid (DRU-H), vehicle motion sensor 
(VMS), and the global positioning system (GPSVprecision lightweight GPS 
receiver (PLGR). 

1-20. The DRU-H is mounted on the right trunnion of the Paladin armament 
system. Operating in conjunction with PLGR, the DRU-H contains all 
necessary sensor electronics, processing, and input-output circuitry to 
perform survey and orientation functions and interface with other MAPS 
components. The DRU-H performs the foil owing functions: 

• Provides vehicle position from a known starting point in terms of 
universal transverse mercator coordinates of easting, northing, and 
altitude. 

• Provides vehicle orientation in terms of azimuth from grid north. 

• Compensates for weapon pitch and cant. 

• Supplies angular velocity rates. 

• Provides weapon elevation, grid azimuth, azimuth rate, elevation rate, 
travel local grid azimuth reference, and travel local elevation reference. 

1-21. The VMS is a mechanical drive that converts vehicle odometer outputs 
to electrical signals as a measure of weapon displacement. The VMS, located 
in the engine compartment, is driven directly from the transmission output 
drive for the odometer cable. The VMS supplies the electronic information to 
the VMS modem. 

1-22. Note: The M117/M117A2 panoramic telescope (pantel), M145/M145A1 
telescope mount, and the M1A1 collimator remain on board the howitzer as 
backup optical firecontrol instrumentation. 

M992A2 FIELD ARTILLERY AMMUNITION SUPPORT VEHICLE (FAASV) FEATURES 

1-23. The M992A2 FAASV accompanies the M109A6 and completes the 
howitzer section. The FAASV has a crew of five. The M992A2 is a full- 
tracked, aluminum armored ammunition resupply vehicle with a hydraulic 
powered conveyor for single-round transfer of ammunition. The M992A2 is 
comparable to the M109A6 in terms of speed, mobility, and survivability. In 
addition to ammunition handling equipment, the FAASV features projectile 
rack assemblies and storage compartments with the capacity to hold 90 
complete conventional rounds and 3 copperhead rounds; a diesel powered 
auxiliary power unit used to drive the hydraulic system and recharge vehicle 
batteries; and an automatic fire extinguisher system (AFES). 



1-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



THE PLATOON OPERATIONS CENTER (POC) 



1-24. The POC provides battle command for the Paladin platoon. The POC is 
contained in an M577/M1068 command post vehicle configured to support 
M109A6 Paladin operations. The lightweight computer unit (LCU) with 
battery computer system (BCS) software is the primary digital interface 
between the advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS)/initial 
fire support automation system (I FSAS) and the howitzers. 



1-8 



Chapter 2 

Duties of Key Personnel 

The duties and responsibilities of key personnel assigned to the Paladin 
firing battery are discussed in this chapter. These duties and 
responsibilities are in addition to those listed in FM 6-50, Chapter 1. The 
duties and responsibilities of the battalion commander and his staff have 
not changed significantly as covered in FM 6-20-1. 



BATTERY COMMANDER 
GENERAL DUTIES 

2-1. The battery commander (BC) commands and controls the Paladin battery 
and directs its employment in accordance with assigned missions. He is 
responsible for battery training, combat readiness, morale, welfare, and all 
aspects of operations. He establishes standards for the battery and ensures 
that those standards are achieved and sustained. As the senior battery 
trainer he is responsible for the professional development of the platoon 
leaders and fire direction officers. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Plans and conducts reconnaissance of the unit headquarters position and 
selects a series of position areas (PAs) for each platoon. 

• Ensures proper terrain coordination with higher headquarters, maneuver 
elements, and adjacent units to facilitate timely position occupations by 
battery vehicles and personnel. 

• Supervises platoon leaders' operations. To the maximum extent possible, 
maintains a presence in the PA and in the POCs teaching, supervising, 
and ensuring adherence to standards. 

• Coordinates with the battalion S3 and reconnaissance and survey officer 
for survey requirements to include navigation update points. 

• Obtains survivability move criteria from the battalion operations section 
and provides to platoon leaders. These criteria are based primarily on the 
anticipated level of threat and the terrain available in accordance with 
(IAW) the factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time 
available, and civil considerations (METT-TC) and the unit's tactical 
standing operating procedures (TSOP). 

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

2-2. The BC must continue to be mobile on the battlefield. Paladin tactics 
require the BC to have a combat vehicle, driver, secure GPS/PLGR, and two 
long-range radios. 



2-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

FIRST SERGEANT 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-3. The firing battery first sergeant (1SG) assists the BC in the command 
and control of the battery in an expanded battlespace. He provides leadership 
and guidance for the battery's enlisted personnel. He is the primary trainer 
for enlisted personnel. Additionally, he supervises all administrative and 
logistical support requirements. His principal assistants include the battery 
supply sergeant and the maintenance contact team chief. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Coordinates battery supply, maintenance, and food service operations. 

• Maintains a presence in the PAs supervising the platoon sergeants, 
gunnery sergeants, and Paladin section chiefs. 

• Ensures platoon sergeants establish adequate security for their elements. 

• Develops, integrates, and supervises the security plan as appropriate. 

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

2-4. A Paladin battery 1SG must have a high-mobility multipurpose wheeled 
vehicle (HMMWV), driver, secure GPS/PLGR, and two long-range radios to 
accomplish his duties. 

FIRING PLATOON LEADER 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-5. The firing platoon leader commands and controls the Paladin platoon. He 
is responsible for all actions of the platoon to include tactical movement, 
continuous day/night and degraded operations, defense, communications, 
individual training, and enforcement of battery standards. 

2-6. During tactical operations, he positions himself to facilitate command 
and control of the platoon. For example, during a movement to contact, the 
platoon leader could be at a critical terrain choke point and may need to 
coordinate with maneuver elements to facilitate passage through a minefield. 
In the defense, he could be located in an overwatch position monitoring 
survivability moves or key avenues of approach. 

2-7. The firing platoon leader relies heavily on the platoon sergeant to 
supervise the firing elements and on the gunnery sergeant (GSG) to conduct 
reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of the position (RSOP). 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Plans, coordinates, supervises, and directs Paladin platoon operations to 
include: 

■ Plans and issues platoon operations/movement orders. 

■ Conducts in-depth platoon rehearsals. 

■ Updates platoon on tactical situation and survivability movement 
criteria. 

■ Plans and supervises platoon tactical moves. 



2-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

• Verifies database in AFCS during initialization or as required. 

• Manages and tracks platoon ammunition status. 

• Ensures AFCS and LCU databases are input correctly and that 
independent secondary checks are made of all entries. 

• Ensures an independent secondary check is performed for all survey data. 

• Ensures verification of howitzer location as required. 

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENT 

2-8. The firing platoon leader must have a dedicated vehicle in order to 
accomplish his duties and execute battle command of his platoon. A combat 
vehicle is required for the platoon leader to include a driver, two radios, and a 
secure GPS. 

PLATOON FIRE DIRECTION OFFICER 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-9. The platoon fire direction officer (FDO) is responsible for the training 
and supervision of the POC personnel. He supervises the establishment, 
verification, and maintenance of the platoon computer database, ensuring 
that all reports are received, recorded, and processed, as required by the unit 
TSOP. He must also be familiar with the duties of the platoon leader, as he 
may be called upon to assume these duties in addition to his own. 

• If required, verifies database in AFCS during initialization. 

• Provides tactical fire direction. 

• Supervises the overall conduct of fires. 

• Reviews fire mission: call for fire (FM:CFF) as necessary. Selects the 
shell-fuze and propelling charge for each howitzer in order to decrease the 
fire mission processing time at the howitzer and to achieve optimum 
effects on target commensurate with ammunition on hand. 

• Tracks ammunition count and usage; recommends ammunition 
distribution plan to the platoon leader. 

• Informs section chiefs of the overall tactical situation and provides 
guidance on positioning. Ensures howitzers do not emplace in areas just 
vacated and susceptible to counterfi re. 

• Reports platoon logistical and administrative requirements to the 1SG as 
appropriate. 

• Controls the fires of the other Paladin platoon in the battery as required. 

• Exchanges key POC database information with theother POC. 

• Maintains capability of computing the technical firing solution for any 
degraded howitzers. 



SPECIFIC DUTIES 



Primary duty to compute executive officer's (XO's) minimum quadrant 

elevation (min QE) based on worst case site to crest data provided by the 

GSG. 

Verifies the technical databases for AFATDS, BCS, and AFCS, 

specifically: 



2-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



■ Howitzer location, azimuth of fire (AOF), and powder temperature. 

■ M V files, target files, ammunition files. 

■ Verification mission to validate initial database and changes to 
database. 

■ Application of registration corrections, and current meteorological 
(met) data. 

Ensures secondary check is made of all entries into the AFATDS/LCU. 

Verifies target plots before processing fire missions and ensures the 

target location does not violate fire support coordinating measures 

(FSCMs). 

Ensures the dissemination of the following: 

■ Required TSOP reports to higher headquarters. 

■ Required database information to the battalion tactical fire direction 
system and the other platoon's BCS. 

■ Tactical and technical fire control measures based upon commander's 
guidance, including howitzer movement. 

Controls howitzer movement and positioning, and maintains howitzer 

tracking charts (HTCs). 

Verifies situation map is updated. 



FIRE DIRECTION CHIEF 

GENERAL DUTIES 



2-10. The fire direction chief is the technical expert on technical/tactical fire 
direction and operation of the AFATDS/LCU. He is the platoon FDO's 
principal enlisted assistant and performs the duties of the FDO in his 
absence. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Verifies AFATDS/LCU initialization information. 

• Ensures secondary check is made of all entries into the AFATDS/LCU. 

• Ensures the current met, muzzle velocity variations (MVVs), and 
registration data are entered into the BCS database. Ensures this 
information is transmitted to the Paladins, using a howitzer 
(HOW);REQUEST message (see Chapter 3 and Appendix B). 

• Verifies database information for each howitzer. 

• Ensures all information received is properly posted and verified on 
situation overlays, status charts, and the HTC. 

• Shift supervisor during continuous operations of the POC. 

FIRE DIRECTION COMPUTER 

2-11. The fire direction computer operates and maintains the LCU. He 
inputs, updates, and deletes database information as directed. He relays 
information reported by the howitzers to the FDO or fire direction chief for 
verification. 



2-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



FIRE DIRECTION SPECIALIST 

2-12. The fire direction specialist posts the situation maps and maintains the 
HTCs, database charts, and files as directed (i.e., howitzer locations, 
ammunition status, met data, and MVVs). He maintains and operates 
AFATDS, radio equipment, command post carrier, and ancillary equipment. 

PLATOON SERGEANT 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-13. The platoon sergeant is the primary enlisted assistant to the platoon 
leader and must be prepared to assume the platoon leader's duties. Normally, 
he is the senior noncommissioned officer (NCO) in the platoon area during 
firing, moving between the howitzers and the POC to perform his duties. 

SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Trains and supervises the howitzer section chiefs. 

• Verifies database in AFCS during initialization or as required. 

• Plans, coordinates, and conducts Paladin platoon occupations and 
displacements. Ensures section chiefs know alternate positions 
throughout the platoon area. 

• Conducts independent secondary check of all survey data. 

• Ensures verification of howitzer locations (see Chapter 3). 

• Coordinates and supervises ammunition distribution plans. 

• Verifies howitzer calibration and ensures MV readings are provided to 
the POC. 

• Determines platoon requirements and coordinates with the platoon 
leader and 1SG for all logistical activities for the platoon. 

• Plans and supervises the security of all elements within the platoon, and 
coordinates with the battery 1SG. 

• Enforces navigation updates as required. 

• Verifies the confidence test on the howitzer as required. (Refer to TM 9- 
2350-314-10, Operator's Manual Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propel led 155 
Millimeter M109A6.) 

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

2-14. A platoon sergeant must have a dedicated vehicle and driver, secure 
GPS/PLGR, and a long-range radio in order to accomplish his duties. 

GUNNERY SERGEANT 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-15. The GSG is the primary reconnaissance expert for the platoon. 
Additionally, he assists the platoon sergeant and must be prepared to assume 
his duties. 



2-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



SPECIFIC DUTIES 

• Performs in-depth reconnaissance of route and platoon PAs selecting 
multiple howitzer or pair locations for possible use. This is made easier 
by use of the GPS. As a minimum he: 

- Verifies the PA location and transmits the location (easting (E), 
northing (N), and altitude (alt)) and radius per pair (if operating in 
paired howitzers) tothePOC. 

■ Coordinates with the BC and survey team for emplacement of survey 
control points (SCPs). 

■ Selects location of SCPs, release points, and rally points as required. 

■ Verifies that SCPs are properly marked and conducts independent 
secondary check of all survey data. 

• Assists and advises the BC during battery RSOP planning. 

• Selects the location for the POC and makes a radio check with battalion 
toensure radio communications capability. 

• Provides FDO worst case site to crest data for computation of XO's min 
QE. 

• As required, reconnoiters possible logistics release point (LRP) locations 
within or close to the PAs ensuring areas selected do not compromise 
platoon positions. 

• Initiates the platoon security plan as a part of his detailed RSOP. 

• Identifies the location of any friendly elements within or adjacent to the 
area of operation. 

EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENT 

2-16. The GSG is the primary reconnaissance expert for the platoon and 
spends the majority of his time away from the platoon. He must have his own 
combat vehicle with a driver, long-range radio, and secure GPS/PLGR. 

PALADIN CHIEF OF SECTION 

GENERAL DUTIES 

2-17. The Paladin chief of section (COS) is responsible for all operations of the 
Paladin section. He normally positions himself at the DU during firing and 
movement. 



SPECIFIC DUTIES 



Initializes and operates the AFCS while ensuring that independent 

secondary checks are conducted for procedures. 

Monitors AFCS during navigation. 

Selects firing positions within assigned fire area. 

Selects hasty occupation firing positions for the Paladin while conducting 

tactical movement. 

Ensures that no more than 16 miles (27 km) is traveled between each 
navigation update when not GPS/PLGR aided. 

Performs zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) when prompted unless otherwise 
directed. 



2-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Ensures digital and voice communications are established and 

maintained. 

Plans and coordinates for the security of the howitzer section as 

designated by the platoon sergeant. (Note: The senior COS is responsible 

for security in multi-howitzer operations). 

Directs personnel rotations between the howitzer and the FAASV. Cross- 
trains crewmen in all section duties. Special emphasis will be placed on 
training the gunner and ammunition team chief in the operation of the 
AFCS. 

Ensures that all required reports are submitted to the POC in an 
accurate and timely manner. 

Coordinates logistical support and maintenance requirements with the 
FDO, platoon sergeant, GSG, or platoon leader. 

Supervises preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) and 
other maintenance as directed by applicable technical manuals on 
assigned equipment. 

Maintains ammunition accountability for both his howitzer and FAASV. 



DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 



• Ensures the AFCS is properly initialized/updated/checked at an 
established SCP. 

• Operates or supervises the operation of the AFCS in both operational and 
degraded modes. Monitors and verifies all data input into the AFCS. 

• Selects a suitable firing position. 

• Designates the position for the FAASV. 

• Operates the AFCS, radios, and hydraulic control box. 

• Directs the driver to orient the howitzer on the general direction of the 
AOF provided by the POC. 

• Commands "PRE PARE FOR ACTION." 

• Supervises the conduct of prefire checks. 

• Assists the driver with the travel lock by elevating the cannon tube with 
the COS hydraulic control handle. 

• Verifies the position location by use of a GPS/PLGR aiding, independent 
GPS/PLGR, a SCP, adjacent howitzer with good location, or map spot. 
Map spot is the least reliable but most readily available method when not 
GPS/PLGR aiding. 

• Records position data. 

• Determines maximum tube elevation. 

• Determines site data. 

• Sends piece status. (At this point, the howitzer is considered "ready to 
fire") 

• Establishes a distant aiming point (DAP) if available. 

• Ensures the ammunition data for the howitzer and FAASV are correct, 
accurately input into the AFCS, and updated after each fire mission. 

• Ensures an accurate powder temperature is input in the AFCS and is 
updated as required. 



2-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Ensures the gunner verifies boresight. 

DUTIES UPON RECEIPT OF FIRE MISSION 

• IAW TM 9-2350-314-10, Chapter 2-15. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Commands "MARCH ORDER." 

• Gives movement instructions to the ammunition team chief (ATC). 

• Normally, the section moves on its own (for survivability moves) based on 
guidance received from the POC and under the direction of the senior 
COS. 

• Transmits a piece status upon completion of the move. 

GUNNER 

2-18. The gunner must be aware of the status of the section and prepared to 
assume the duties of the COS or the ATC to facilitate 24-hour operations. He 
operates the AFC S as directed by the COS. 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Unlocks turret lock, secures ballistic shield, and releases spade pins as 
required. 

• Assists with determining mask data by sighting through the bore and 
directing the COS's movement of the tube. 

• Conducts prefi re checks as directed by the chief. 

• Establishes an alternate aiming point using a DAP (if available) or 
emplaces the collimator (as required). Records data to the alternate 
aiming point. 

• Reports the temperature of the propellant being fired (on-board howitzer, 
FAASV, or outside cache) to the COS every two hours or as required by 
TSOP/POC. 

DUTIES UPON RECEIPT OF FIRE MISSION 

• Assists the COS in conducting safe howitzer operations. 

• Announces the propellant and charge, prepares charge, loads charge, 
closes breech, and ensures unused increments are stowed in propellant 
canister. 

• Verifies firing data on DU by checking for the following: lay key is 
backlit, actual and commanded QE and deflection (df) match, and the 
prompt, "warning tube is not in laid position" is not displayed. If data is 
correct, the gunner announces "VERIFIED." If data is not verified or data 
is incorrect, he announces "CHECK Fl Rl NG." 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Locks the turret lock and secures the ballistic shield. 

• Notifies the COS that the howitzer is ready to move. 

• Monitors and reports AFCS data toCOS during movement. 



2-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



NUMBER 1CANNONEER 
DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• IAW TM 9-2350-314-10, Chapter 2-15. 

DUTIES UPON RECEIPT OF FIRE MISSION 

• IAW TM 9-2350-314-10, Chapter 2-15. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• IAW TM 9-2350-314-10, Chapter 2-15. 

HOWITZER DRIVER 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Records mileage after last navigation update. Reports to COS when 
howitzer approaches 16 miles (27 km) since last update. 

• Conducts pref ire checks. 

• Closes the driver's hatch. 

• Sets the throttle to 1000-1200 revolutions per minute (RPM) while 
operating the hydraulic system. 

• Operates the remote travel lock and commands "ELEVATE". 

• Scans his sector defined by the chief and reports any unusual activity. 

DUTIES UPON RECEIPT OF FIRE MISSION 

• Ensures driver's hatch is closed, and remains in the driver's compartment 
and monitors instruments. 

• Sets the throttle to 1000-1200 RPM. 

• Records firing data on Department of the Army (DA) Form 4513, Record 
of Missions Fired. 

• Scans his immediate front and reports any unusual activity. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Maintains DA Form 4513 IAW FM 6-50. 

• Operates the travel lock. 

AMMUNITION TEAM CHIEF 

2-19. The ATC must be proficient in mounted land navigation. He must be 
prepared to assume the duties of the gunner or COS during 24-hour 
operations. He supervises the cannoneers assigned to the FAASV and must 
be capable of operati ng the AF CS. 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Positions the FAASV as directed. 

• Commands "PRE PARE FOR ACTION." 

• Starts the auxiliary power unit (APU) and positions conveyor. 



2-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Reports the current ammunition inventory and powder temperature to 
COS as needed. 

DUTIES UPON RECEIPT OF FIRE MISSION 

• Maintains DA Form 5969-R, Section Chief s Report. 

• Verifies shell, charge, fuze setting (when in the mated position), and 
reports powder temperature as required. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Secures the conveyor and shuts down the APU. 

AMMUNITION VEHICLE DRIVER 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Positions the FAASV as directed by the ATC. 

• Sets the brakes. 

• Remains in the driver's compartment, monitors the instruments as 
required, and scans his sector as defined by the ATC. 

DUTIES DURING FIRING 

• The driver performs duties as directed by the ATC. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Releases the brakes and prepares to move. 

NUMBER 2CANNONEER 

2-20. The number 2 cannoneer is normally the second senior soldier on the 
FAASV. He must be prepared to assume the duties of the ATC during 
continuous operations. 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Opens the lower rear door and extends the conveyor for operation, 
assisted by the number 4 cannoneer. 

• Connects (if mated) communications between the FAASV and the 
howitzer as required. 

• Places the powder thermometer in the powder charge, prepares powder 
charges for firing and reports powder temperature to the ATC. 

• As directed by the CS, helps the gunner emplace the collimator (for 
mated operations). 

DUTIES DURING FIRING 

• Prepares powder charges. 

• Carries ammunition to the howitzer if required. 



2-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Disconnects (if mated) communications between the howitzer and the 
FAASV as required. 

• Retracts the conveyor and closes the rear door. 

NUMBER 3CANNONEER 

DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Prepares the conveyor for operation. 

• Prepares ammunition for firing. 

DUTIES DURING FIRING 

• Places the projectile on the conveyor dead-end section. 

• Operates the conveyor controls. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

• Assists the number 2 cannoneer in retracting the conveyor. 

NUMBER 4CANNONEER 
DUTIES BEFORE FIRING 

• Prepares the conveyor for operation, assisted by the number 2 cannoneer. 

DUTIES DURING FIRING 

• Prepares ammunition for firing. 

• Carries ammunition to the howitzer as directed. 

DUTIESAFTER FIRING 

• Returns ammunition to the stowed configuration. 



2-11 



Chapter 3 

Operations 

This chapter addresses Paladin battalion, battery, platoon, and section 
level operations. Additionally, it provides TTP for Paladin unique 
occupation procedures and insights on CSS for Paladin units. 



SECTION I - BATTALION OPERATIONS 



BATTLE COMMAND 

3-1. Battle command is the art of decision making and leading. It includes 
controlling operations and motivating soldiers and their organizations into 
action to accomplish missions. The battle command process of a Paladin 
battalion is impacted by four methods of employment available for the three 
firing batteries. Firing batteries can be employed using battery, platoon, 
paired, and single howitzer methods. Effective battle command relies upon 
well-trained subordinate units because each of the three batteries may 
employ various methods as dictated by METT-TC. The battle command 
process with each method must be rigorously rehearsed to enable rapid 
delivery of fires in support of the maneuver commander. 

TACTICAL OPERATIONS CENTER (TOC) 

3-2. Within the battalion command post (CP) the operations, intelligence, and 
fire direction sections make up the TOC. The TOC provides C2 for current 
and future operations. The battalion S3 is responsible for TOC operations. Its 
composition is the same as all cannon field artillery battalions. TOC 
operations are discussed in FM 6-20-1. 



J ump TOC 



3-3. The jump TOC is an element of the main TOC specifically designed to 
facilitate the movement of the main TOC. It is normally characterized as a 
vehicle(s) and personnel capable of reconnaissance of the TOC's planned 
route and future position. It establishes local security and communications 
until the main TOC's arrival. The jump TOC may have to assume C2 of the 
battalion during the movement of the main TOC. 



Designated POC 



3-4. The S3 or battalion FDO may designate one POC to assume tactical fire 
control of the battalion based on the ability to communicate with battalion 
FDC and all other POCs. This method is most effective when the S3 or his 
designated representative is positioned at the designated POC prior to the 
battle handover. 



3-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



MUTUAL SUPPORTED UNIT (MSU) OPERATIONS 

3-5. MSU operations, while highly effective, require rehearsals and a great 
deal of coordination. Unit TSOPs must address the details of battle handover 
with the reinforcing field artillery battalion and the brigade fire support 
element (FSE). Tactical fire control will be simplified with a similar 
reinforcing battalion (i.e., cannon artillery). However, it is possible for a 
multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) battalion to assume control provided 
the reinforcing artillery commander clearly understands the tactical 
maneuver plan and all assigned essential field artillery tasks (EFATs). 

DISPLACEMENT 

3-6. The Paladin battalion uses the same displacement options as other 
platoon-based units. Under normal conditions, the smallest unit for tactical 
displacement is the platoon. This facilitates command, control, and logistical 
operations. The platoons move as individual march elements. 

POSITIONING 

3-7. The Paladin battalion is positioned to accomplish its assigned tactical 
mission. Considerations during PA coordination include the following: 

• The ability to accomplish the battalion's essential fire support tasks 
(EFSTs) and EFATs. EFSTs/EFATs are the primary tools used by the 
battalion S3, the staff, and battery commanders to focus Paladin fires and 
prioritize tasks. EFSTs are discussed in FM 6-20-40. EFATs are 
discussed in FM 6-20-1. 

• Maximum range requirements and available ammunition to support 
EFSTs/EFATs. 

• Terrain suitability. 

• Communications with higher, lower, and adjacent units. 

• Survivability. 

• Future operations. 

TERRAIN MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION 

3-8. The S3 manages and coordinates terrain use with maneuver units. Land 
management considerations include using larger platoon areas of operation 
(compared to earlier M 109 series howitzers) and sharing the same land with 
other units. 

3-9. When an M109A6 battalion is assigned a DS mission, the fire support 
coordinator (FSCOORD) and his S3 anticipate the requirement to move the 
batteries and coordinate with the maneuver commander or S3 through the 
FSE. The commander, S3, and fire support officer (FSO) perform an initial 
map reconnaissance to identify possible PAs. These areas must allow the 
battalion to support the scheme of maneuver. The field artillery (FA) 
battalion reconnaissance survey officer (RSO) and/or the firing BCs and 
GSGs confirm suitability of positions by reconnaissance, as the situation 
permits. 



3-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



3-10. At battalion level, the Paladin adds flexibility to the planning and 
coordination process. Because the traditional line of metal no longer exists, 
the Paladin platoon can occupy places unsuitable for conventional artillery. A 
Paladin unit can occupy wooded areas, urban areas, or areas with dense 
undergrowth. If an area is open enough for individual howitzers to establish 
an AOF (considering site to crest) and the ground is firm enough to allow one 
or more howitzers to move around, the area is suitable for M109A6 
operations. Since there is no need to lay with an aiming circle, intervisibility 
between the Paladins is not absolutely required. However, it should be a 
consideration, as it allows for mutual defense and facilitates reciprocal lay in 
degraded operations. 

3-11. A Paladin platoon PA may require an area on the order of 1,500 by 
3,000 meters. There may be more than one firing area within a platoon PA. 
The greater the threat of counterfire, the more the Paladin conducts 
survivability moves within a given firing area. However, Paladin does not 
require sole use of this terrain. With proper coordination, maneuver units can 
pass through a Paladin PA without disrupting operations. 

3-12. The Paladin battery normally operates in a band of terrain 1 to 8 km 
behind the forward maneuver units, competing with other friendly units for 
PAs. Maneuver commanders may resist sharing space with Paladin units 
because of the potential for enemy counterfire. This is particularly true for 
less mobile units. However, wide dispersion of Paladin across a brigade front 
minimizes the effectiveness of enemy counterfire. Since Paladin does not 
require sole use of terrain, land management is facilitated by the ability to 
co-use PAs. 

3-13. Coordination of terrain with the supported maneuver unit must be 
continuous. The FSE at the maneuver CP is the focal point for this 
coordination. The emphasis at this level should be on "NO-GO" areas for the 
artillery, rather than attempting to allocate individual PAs. The locations of 
friendly elements must be known in the battalion TOC, the battalion FDC, 
and the POCs. BCs and GSGs must keep the FA battalion S3 constantly 
apprised of problems encountered with friendly elements during 
reconnaissance and occupation of PAs. The battery commander should 
coordinate face-to-face with commanders in close proximity to his planned 
PA. This coordination may take place during brigade-level combined arms 
rehearsals. 

SURVEY OPERATIONS 

3-14. Survey operations must be carefully planned and controlled to 
maximize accuracy by minimizing circular error probable (CEP). As with 
traditional cannon artillery, all survey control should originate from a 
common source. Limited survey assets (two position azimuth determining 
systems (PADS) and one conventional survey party for six platoons), 
dispersed firing elements, and greater survey requirements demand a well- 
coordinated plan. If not GPS aided, the navigation subsystem (DRU-H) will 
require navigation updates. SCPs are necessary to ensure each howitzer 
maintains the following accuracy: 



3-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Position - 18 meters CEP. 

• Elevation - 10 meters probable error (PE). 

3-15. If ZUPTs are not performed when prompted, the 18-meter CEP may be 
exceeded. 

3-16. Survey planning and coordination are a critical aspect of survey 
operations. The planning process begins with guidance (priority of survey) 
from the battalion S3 and continues for the duration of the operation. 
Execution of the survey plan requires continuous coordination among the 
firing battery commanders, the S3, and the RSO. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



3-17. Survey information can be transmitted in a number of ways. These 
include face-to-face meetings, voice or digital radio communications, and 
written tags left at marked SCPs. Normally, survey information is 
transmitted to individual batteries by voice on the battery command net. 

SURVEY CONTROL POINTS 

General 

3-18. SCPs are used to establish positional control. The locations of SCPs are 
prioritized based on time available and accuracy of the system. A confidence 
check point (CCP) is a SCP with an established end of the orienting line 
(EOL). When a howitzer's navigation system is experiencing failures it uses 
the CCP to conduct a confidence test. Confidence test procedures are found in 
TM 9-2350-314-10. 

Navigation Update Points 

3-19. A navigation update point is simply a surveyed point on the ground 
where the howitzer can update its location in the AFCS (E, N, and alt). As 
part of position improvement, a SCP should be established in the PA. Specific 
placement of the SCP is the responsibility of the BC or GSG and is based on 
their reconnaissance of the PA. 

3-20. If there is no rearm, refuel, resupply, and survey point (R3SP) planned, 
the battalion should establish three SCPs along the route of march, spaced 50 
- 100 meters apart. The SCPs should be easily identifiable, accessible, and 
within a reasonable distance of the release point of the tactical road march. 
Their use permits the entire platoon to update simultaneously, without 
holding up the rest of the battalion. 

3-21. If the battalion has established a R3SP, there should be a SCP 
established at each heavy expanded-mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) tanker, 
permitting the howitzers to perform a navigation update while refueling. 

Global Positioning Systems 

3-22. A secure GPS can be used to establish SCPs that the howitzers can use 
for navigation update points. The use of secure GPS provides the PADS team 
the time and flexibility to accomplish other survey missions (i.e., task force 
mortars, target acquisition (TA) radars, and fire support teams (FISTs)). An 
independent, secondary check must be performed to validate the grid location 



3-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



determined by the secure GPS. Refer to FM 6-50, Chapter 4 for guidelines in 
using GPS. 

Position Marking 

3-23. SCPs are usually marked with a short wooden stake or a .50 caliber 
shell casing. The stake must be positioned where it can be seen from a 
distance. They are normally tagged with a distinctive survey marker and are 
positioned to allow the howitzer to navigate its front hub in close proximity to 
the marker. Each SCP requires the following minimum information: E, N, 
alt, spheroid, datum, and grid zone. The information should be legible and 
the letters large enough for the driver to read from his seat as he positions 
the gun's left front sprocket within one meter of the SCP. The information 
should be written in indelible ink on the conventional shoe tag, 3x5 card, or 
a small placard affixed to the stake facing the driver. All survey data must be 
verified using an independent, secondary check. 



SECTION II - BATTERY OPERATIONS 



BATTLE COMMAND 

3-24. Battery operations are defined as one POC controlling all six howitzers 
in an area that is approximately 3,000 X 3,000 meters. The Paladin firing 
battery normally operates with two firing platoons. However, the BC may 
designate one POC to control all six howitzers to meet mission requirements. 
A typical example where this may occur would be fast moving operations 
where the BC designates a controlling POC and positions the other POC at a 
point to facilitate continuous operations. Battery operations are also used 
when one POC is degraded and not capable of fire direction. 

EMPLOYMENT OF HOWITZERS 

3-25. The controlling POC can employ the howitzers as one battery element, 
two platoons, in pairs, or as single howitzers. Employment is based on the 
commander's assessment of METT-TC (see Figure 3-1). Employment 
advantages using battery operations include standardization of crew drills for 
fire direction personnel, continuous operations, centralized battle command 
and logistical support, and enhanced security. 



3-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 




1 POC controls 6 howitzers in 
one position area with 2nd 
POC positioned to facilitate 
continuous operations. 




1 POC per 3 howitzer 
platoon. Either POC can 
assume control of all 6 
howitzers. 




1 POC can control either 1, 2, 
or 3 howitzer pairs. 



Figure 3-1. Employment Options 

RECONNAISSANCE, SELECTION, AND OCCUPATION OF POSITION 

(RSOP) 

3-26. The battery commander must issue clear guidance and task organize to 
effectively reconnoiter battery positions. If the displacing elements move at 
the same time and are not greatly separated, one POC can control movement. 
I f the elements move separately, either by ti me or route, movement reverts to 
platoon control. Separation of the platoons increases the difficulty of 
command, control, and logistics. 

RECONNAISSANCE 

3-27. The BC receives a warning order to relocate the battery. He is given 
general locations to reconnoiter for suitability. He assembles the 
reconnaissance elements of one or both platoons and rendezvous with a 
battalion survey team if one is available. The platoon reconnaissance element 
is normally the platoon GSG and his driver augmented with additional 
personnel to meet mission requirements. The following tasks must be 
accomplished during reconnaissance: 

• Reconnoiter routes to the new PAs. Emplace SCPs along the route to 
perform navigation updates as required. 

• Reconnoiter the planned platoon PAs and report their suitability to the 
battalion CP. Key concerns are the track plan, obstacles, site to crest, 
cant, and communications (i.e., POC to battalion FDC, POC to guns). 

• Conduct face-to-face coordination with any friendly elements that may be 
in the vicinity. For a detailed discussion of conventional RSOP 
procedures, see FM 6-50, Chapter 2. 



3-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



DISPLACEMENT 

3-28. The Paladin battery can displace the same as all other platoon-based 
units (battery, platoon, pairs, sections). 

Rapid Movement Option 

3-29. Move rapidly to the new position. Disregard ZUPTs and navigation 
updates. Understand accurate firing unit location has been compromised and 
some method of registration is required. Establish firing unit location using 
hasty survey techniques. Conduct a navigation update using 5 th order survey 
as soon as possible. 

Survey Not Available 

3-30. If survey is not available in the new position, the commander can expect 
the errors noted in the following graph (Figure 3-2): 



CEP 
(meters) 























4 
















































































































•0 






















20 






















10 ' 


i 


r 









































Distance Traveled (kilometers) 
with 60 minutes between ZU PTs 



Figure 3-2. Circular Error Probable versus Distance Traveled 

3-31. DRU-H data should be verified with a map spot or a GPS with 
particular attention given to altitude, as it is the most sensitive to traveling 
without an update. 

POSITIONING SUPPORT ASSETS 

3-32. The important consideration for positioning the battery support 
elements is that they must be able to respond quickly to platoon elements 
without encumbering operations. There are three options referenced in FM 6- 
50 for positioning battery support elements: 

• Heavy-heavy. 

• Heavy-light. 

• Light-light. 

3-33. The heavy-heavy option divides the support elements in half and 
assigns them to each platoon. The heavy-light option positions all of the 



3-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

support elements in one platoon PA. The light-light option positions all of the 
battery support elements in a separate location away from both platoon 
areas. 

MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS IN THE OFFENSE 

3-34. Paladin offensive operations are often non-stop and characterized by 
firing high volumes of missions. Positioning options in the offense are tied to 
movement methods designed to provide continuous fire support. 

3-35. During a movement to contact/hasty attack, the battery may move in 
separate platoon formations and move the battery headquarters as a 
separate element. If the wedge formation is used, the platoons may travel in 
their own wedge or a battery consolidated wedge with the controlling POC 
and headquarters elements located inside the formation for protection. The 
other POC can be repositioned to assume control in a fast moving scenario. If 
the terrain is restrictive, the BC may move in columns to keep pace with the 
battle. Areas that must be addressed are the locations of the key leaders, 
maneuver graphics, terrain, and the scheme of maneuver. 

3-36. The BC must consider the following during offensive operations: 

• Navigation update points along the route of march. 

• Rearm, refuel, and resupply operations. 

• Hipshoot procedures. 

• Location of the POC in the formation. 

• Location of the platoon leader during movement. 

• Distance between vehicles and positive identification of the trail vehicle 
in the maneuver formation. 

• Situational awareness at the section level (i.e., changing maneuver 
graphics, minefield locations, chemical strikes, and location of enemy 
reconnaissance units). 

ARTILLERYTROOP LEADING PROCEDURES 

3-37. Troop leading procedures (TLPs) provide a mental framework to ensure 
complete preparation, dissemination, and execution of the battery mission. 
The process provides a checklist for all leaders from receipt of the mission to 
execution (FM 6-50, Chapter 2). The steps may occur out of order or 
simultaneously after receipt of the mission. It is imperative that leaders 
understand that TLPs will be tailored for Paladin specific tasks. For example, 
EFATs will dictate turret load, FAASV load, movement options, resupply 
options, and other tactical considerations. 



SECTION III - PLATOON OPERATIONS 



BATTLE COMMAND 

3-38. Platoon operations are defined as a POC controlling three howitzers in 
a PA that is approximately 1,500 X 3,000 meters (see Figure 3-3). The 
numbers of howitzers in each platoon may be altered and various 
employment techniques can be used to meet mission requirements. C2 is 



3-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



critical to maintaining responsiveness and survivability of the platoons. TLPs 
reinforce and expedite dissemination of information to the section chief. 

3-39. Issuance of orders is a critical link in fire mission processing. The POCs 
must be positioned to receive C2 from battalion and to issue C2 to the 
sections. To ensure this, the GSG must make communications checks with 
battalion as part of the RSOP procedures. He must assess the ability of the 
POC to communicate with all of the howitzers in each firing position. 



1.5 KM 



Position Area 

— 3 KM 




\ 



\ 



\ 
\ 

Alternate I 1.5 km 
Firing . 
Area / 
/ 

/ 

y 



3 KM 



• Platoon PA is approximately 1.5 X 3 kilometers. 

• Tactical moves are outside the firing area. 

• Firing areas can be up to 750 meter radius. 

• Howitzer survivability moves are within the firing area. 

• Moves are based on commander's guidance. 

• Control can be centralized or decentralized. 

- POC controls centralized operations. 

- Decentralized operations controlled by senior chief of section. 



Figure 3-3. Platoon Operations 



RSOP 

RECONNAISSANCE 



3-40. The BC and GSG must determine the suitability of the position for 
Paladin operations and determine whether enemy ground forces, mines, or 
chemical hazards are present. Since there is no need to establish individual 
howitzer positions or determine initial deflections the advance party will 
usually consist of only the GSG and his driver. However, it may include any 
other personnel specified by the unit TSOP or required by the tactical 
situation. The primary function of the advance party is to determine what 
general areas or zones that his unit can operate within as a battery or 
platoon of howitzers. Mine sweeping and chemical monitoring are performed 
consistent with the threat. 

3-41. Enroute to the new platoon PA, the GSG coordinates with the BC or 
RSO for the locations of the SCPs required for updating the howitzers while 



3-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



enroute. The GSG verifies the SCPs, establishes a track plan, and reports 
any problems to the BC or platoon leader to include locations of friendly and 
enemy elements. RSOP operations are facilitated with the GSG's card. An 
example card is shown at Figure 3-4. 

3-42. The GSG identifies the POC location, potential target reference points 
(TRPs), and enemy avenues of approach. This information is graphically 
displayed on the initial PA/defensive diagram and given to the platoon 
sergeant/platoon leader upon his arrival (time permitting). After the platoon 
sergeant/platoon leader refine and approve the defense diagram/firing area 
map, the POC will use it to overlay the HTC (see Chapter 4). 



3-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Task 


Planned 


Actual 


Center Grid (only refine if 
necessary 


E: N: Alt: 


E: N: Alt: 


Radius (meters) 






Min QE of Immediate Crest 




Range 




Sight 




Object 




Radio Check with Battalion 
FDC 


Yes/No 


Entry Point 




Grid 


E: N: 


E: N: 


Description 




POC Location 


E: N: 


E: N: 


Terrain Restrictions 




Route Restrictions 




Firing Area Restrictions 




Visible Distant Aiming Point 


Yes/No Description: 


Travel Time 






Rally Point 






Additional Information 


Note: Send the ready to fire information as soon as it is determined. Send as much of the report 
as is completed before platoon departs from start point. 



Figure 3-4. Example Gunnery Sergeant's Card 

3-43. Note: If the platoon is operating in a fully degraded mode, the platoon 
leader can use M109A5 tactics. FM 6-50 explains conventional RSOP 
procedures. Consider restrictions in TM 9-2350-314-10. 



DISPLACEMENT-SURVIVABILITY MOVES 



3-44. In a mid- to high-intensity threat environment, the COS must assume 
that the enemy's TA assets acquire the first round fired from any position. In 
this case, the enemy may respond in as little as 5 to 12 minutes. The Paladin 
survives with the combination of movement and dispersion. A survivability 



3-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



move of 300 to 500 meters removes the platoon or howitzers from the target 
footprint of most threat artillery systems. The FSCOORD, S3, and BC 
evaluate the available intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) and 
issue guidance to the platoons concerning survivability measures. Managing 
survivability moves requires teamwork between the howitzers and the POC. 

METHOD OF CONTROL 

3-45. The POC must coordinate movement of the howitzers within the 
platoon area. The BC can move his vehicles within the firing area by either a 
decentralized or centralized method. With the decentralized concept, the POC 
provides movement criteria and the senior COS of the platoon directs 
movement of the howitzers to the new firing positions within the firing area. 
Centralized movement requires the POC to tell the howitzers when and/or 
where to move. See Chapter 4 for more details on control of howitzer 
movement. 

METHODS OF POSITIONING THE POC 

3-46. To avoid enemy counterfire, the POC should be positioned outside the 
firing area. It must be located to effectively communicate with battalion FDC 
and its guns. Once positioned, the POC does not routinely move within the 
platoon area but relies on cover and concealment to survive. 

METHODS OF EMPLOYING HOWITZERS 



Platoon 



Paired 



3-47. Within a platoon PA, three howitzers are normally positioned 
individually and work together under the supervision of the senior COS. The 
three section chiefs coordinate movement and move as a team. The sections 
maximize dispersion based on the factors of METT-TC. The method of 
employment depends on the tactical situation. As an example, a platoon may 
operate as single sections to maximize dispersion during a high air threat. 
The number of howitzers in each platoon may be changed to execute multiple 
missions or special missions. The normal platoon configuration is one POC 
controlling three howitzers. The advantages to positioning Paladins as a 
platoon versus a battery are as follows: 

• Provides dual mission capability (multiple missions). 

• Better leader ratio (gunnery and platoon sergeants, platoon leaders). 

• I ncreased su r vi va bi I i ty ( more d i spersed ) . 

• Facilitates communications (more dispersed with two POCs). 



3-48. This concept requires two howitzers to operate in a firing area with a 
radius up to 750 meters. A senior COS is designated and he acts as the team 
leader. During paired operations, the two howitzers move together and 
should stay visible to one another. Survivability is enhanced by maintaining 
a distance of at least 100 meters between the howitzers in the pair. When 
METT-TC allows, chiefs of section should maximize separation. Howitzers 
can be much closer than 100 meters in built-up or heavily wooded areas. 
They can be farther apart in more open terrain, such as the desert, but must 



3-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



be vigilant to stay in their assigned area. BCs and platoon leaders should 
consider paired howitzer operations when the enemy counterfire threat is 
high and the threat from a dismounted ground attack is low. The advantages 
of paired operations over single howitzers are: 

• Allows for mutual ground and air defense. 

• Provides an independent check of position and azimuth. 

• Gives ability to perform degraded operations (see Appendix A). 



Single Howitzer 



3-49. Single howitzer operations are one section operating autonomously in 
an exclusive firing area. The POC controls the section and it is placed on the 
HTC (see Chapter 4) as a separate firing area. This is the most difficult 
operational mode to battle command, as it requires the highest degree of crew 
training and provides no means for mutual support against ground or air 
threats. 

TERRAIN MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION 

3-50. The M109A6 howitzers operate in a dispersed manner. They make 
survivability moves of 300-500 meters within a firing area and operate in a 
1.5 X 3 kilometer platoon PA. This is about the same amount of space 
currently used by a prior M 109 series platoon in establishing its two (primary 
and alternate) PAs. The key differences are discussed below: 

3-51. Non-M109A6 units must select new PAs for survivability moves. 
Paladin units make all survivability moves within the same firing area. 

3-52. Non-M109A6 units must have prepared alternate positions, while 
Paladin units do not. If a firing position becomes untenable, a Paladin can 
move to another firing position within its firing area to continue its mission 
(survivability move). 

3-53. The Paladin can use areas not suitable for other cannon units. An area 
that prior M109 series platoons could not occupy may provide several 
single/pair M109A6 positions. 

3-54. Paladin units do not need to be sole users of a platoon PA. Sharing land 
must be coordinated through the FA battalion S3. BCs must conduct face-to- 
face coordination with the unit commander sharing common ground. 



SECTION IV - SECTION OPERATIONS 



BATTLE COMMAND 

3-55. A section, consisting of a howitzer and a FAASV, normally operates as 
one of three sections in a platoon, but may operate alone in a firing area 
under the control of the POC. Normally, the COS is responsible for both 
vehicles, although there may betimes (such as during periods of intense high 
volume indirect fires) when the FAASVs will fall under the control of the 
platoon sergeant. Section operations are the least preferred option because 
the section is isolated and must provide its own defense. The COS relies on 
theATC tooverwatch the howitzer, particularly during firing. 



3-13 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



RSOP 

DISPLACEMENT 



Centralized 



3-56. The section performs survivability moves to new firing positions within 
a firing area assigned by the POC. The COS coordinates movement with the 
ATC on the FAASV. The new position is improved as time permits. 



3-57. Sections operating under purely centralized control move as directed by 
the POC. This method of control may be dictated by the tactical situation, or 
may be used by units with inexperienced crews. The S3 may impose 
centralized control prior to executing scatterable mine (SCATMINE) 
minefields, preparations, or counter-preparations to ensure that the battalion 
can mass. 

Decentralized 

3-58. Normally, the platoon will operate in a decentralized mode. The COS 
must be able to choose a specific firing position within a firing area. As a 
minimum, he should keep in mind the following items: 

• Center sector of fire. 

• Obstacles to firing within the sector (site to crest). 

• Communications with the POC. 

• Any natural or man-made objects that provide protection or deter 
detection from the enemy. 

• Any friendly elements sharing the firing area which may be endangered 
if the Paladin is targeted. 

POSITIONING OPTIONS 

3-59. The platoon sergeant can use the following methods: 



Mated 



3-60. When mated, the gun must be on spades and the FAASV conveyor 
extended into the back door of the howitzer. The FAASV top rear door must 
be closed to avoid blast overpressure problems for the M 992. 

3-61. Advantages. 

• Crew endurance is increased because personnel handle the ammunition 
less than in any other FAASV configuration. 

• All rounds can be fired from the ammunition carried on the FAASV 
instead of firing on-board ammunition from the howitzer ammunition 
racks. 

• Crew rotation for sleep and section defense is enhanced by close 
proximity of all crew members. 

• The howitzer can draw electrical power from the FAASV for degraded 
operations. 



3-14 



Separated 



Overwatch 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



3-62. Disadvantages. 

• The howitzer rear door must be open to allow the ammunition feed path 
from the F AASV to operate effectively. 

• The crew compartment of the howitzer is susceptible to nuclear, 
biological, and chemical (NBC) contamination. 

• Exposes the crew to blast over pressure when firing M203 and M119- 
series charges. 

• Counterfire survivability of the section is reduced because of the 
proximity of the howitzer to the FAASV. 

• Using spades increases emplacement and displacement time and exposes 
crew to small arms fires. 



3-63. When separated the FAASV conveyor is not extended into the howitzer. 
The FAASV should be positioned far enough away from the Paladin to 
minimize the effects of enemy artillery, but near enough to supply the 
howitzer ammunition. The distance from the FAASV to the howitzer is 
METT-TC dependent. Intervisibility between the howitzer and the FAASV 
must be maintained. 

3-64. Advantages. 

• FAASV ammunition resupply simplified. 

• Less susceptible to enemy artillery fire. 

• Blast protection maximized. 

3-65. Disadvantages. 

• Ammunition resupply to howitzer is more manpower-intensive. 

• Crew rotation is reduced. 

• Sleep plan more difficult. 



3-66. The FAASV is positioned to provide early warning to the howitzers. It is 
positioned on terrain to cover danger areas or high-speed avenues of 
approach. Separation between the two vehicles may allow occupation of areas 
unsuitable for mated vehicles. There is no blast over pressure problem. The 
FAASV is normally positioned in the platoon PA but is not tied to howitzer 
location or movement. Emphasis is on concealing the FAASV, particularly 
from air observation. 

3-67. Advantages. 

• Enhanced defensive capability. 

• FAASV is less susceptibletocounterfiredirected at the gun. 

• Reduced visual signature. 

3-68. Disadvantages. 

• Ammunition resupply takes longer. 

• Crew is separated and not immediately available. 



3-15 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Sleep plan more difficult. 

Must fire only from ammunition on the gun. 



SECTION V - OCCUPATION 



PROCEDURES 

3-69. This section outlines standard occupation procedures for Paladin units. 
These procedures provide reasonable assurances that all rounds fired will 
impact accurately and safely. 

3-70. The Paladin occupation procedures are designed to maximize the 
system capabilities and allow the Paladin unit to train as it will fight. 

3-71. The procedures outlined in this section describe a system of 
independent checks for both the POC and howitzer databases and related 
firing data. I ndependent checks are necessary to ensure that someone other 
than the person who performs the action verifies all actions that affect firing 
data. Though most independent checks take place before missions are 
received, performing secondary independent checks is a continuous process, 
and must be rigidly enforced to ensure fires are timely, accurate, and safe. 

3-72. The employment of the Paladin howitzer is divided into four phases: 
initialization, conducting the tactical move, occupation of the position, and 
during firing. 

PHASE I: INITIALIZATION 

Howitzer 

3-73. Initialization/database checks occur either in the motor pool or 
whenever the AFCS has been shut down (IAW procedures found in TM 9- 
2350-314-10, Chapter 2). Unit TSOPs should list explicitly those settings to 
be made at the howitzer. Upon completion of initialization, the howitzer will 
conduct a verification mission with the POC to ensure accuracy of the 
ballistic solution. The platoon leader, assisted by the platoon sergeant and 
GSG will verify each howitzer's initialization database. At a minimum, they 
will verify the initialization grid (E, N, and alt). 



POC 



3-74. The POC initializes the LCU IAW procedures found in the applicable 
technical bulletin and their battalion TSOP. The Paladin weapons dependent 
program has five unique formats, two of which need to be completed during 
initialization (the HOW;SBT and HOW;UPDATE). The FDO/chief computer 
verifies that all entries made by the LCU operator are correct. Once 
communications with the guns are established, the POC will transmit the 
subscriber table, map modification (MAP MOD), met, and other pertinent 
ballistics data to the guns. This information flow is transparent to the guns. 



3-16 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



3-75. Verification Mission. Once the guns have initialized, the POC will 
initiate a verification mission, specifying a converged sheaf, charge, shell-fuze 
combination, and lot using BCS (SYS;SETUP, GUNORD;X). This will 
produce firing data at the LCU which the POC records. Next, the POC 
removes X from the GUNORD field and re-executes the mission to all 
howitzers. The AFCS at each howitzer will compute firing data. The chiefs 
report charge, deflection, quadrant, and fuze time (if applicable) to the POC. 
The POC will compare the data computed by the AFCS to the data computed 
by the LCU. The data must agree within the following tolerances: 

Table 3-1. Verification Mission Tolerances 



Data Item 


Version 10 or Higher 


Fuze Time 


0.1 second 


Fuze VariableTime (VT) 


1 second 


Deflection 


2 mils 


Quadrant 


2 mils 



3-76. Verification missions must be conducted after initialization, or when an 
AFCS or LCU has powered down and powered back up again, or when a 
significant change to the database occurs. A significant change is one or more 
of the following: change in met, MVVs, or registration corrections. A 
howitzer's location is not considered a change, if the howitzer's location was 
properly verified by an independent means. Comparison between the AFCS 
data and the LCU data highlights gross inaccuracies in MVs, ammunition, 
fire unit, met, registration corrections, and powder temperature. 



PHASE II: CONDUCT TACTICAL MOVEMENT 



Howitzer 



3-77. After initialization is complete, the guns are given movement orders by 
the POC. The movement order includes the guns proposed location, center 
sector AOF, start point (SP) time, and movement radius. The POC will use 
the location and radius provided by the GSG for use with the HTC. 

3-78. If the tactical move is less than 27 kms, ZUPTs are performed and no 
faults detected, the howitzers begin occupation procedures. If faults are 
detected, acknowledge fault and perform appropriate level of degraded 
operations I AW Appendix A. If movement is greater than 27 kms or ZUPTs 
not performed, conduct navigation update at a SCP prior to arrival. Along the 
route of march close to the battalion release point or at an R3SP there will be 
one to four SCPs set up as described in Section I . The platoon arrives at the 
SCP and performs a navigation update. Upon completion of the navigation 
update, the section completes the movement. 

3-79. If the DRU-H is GPS aided, units are not required to perform 
navigation updates and the AFCS normally will not prompt the operator to 
perform ZU PTs. 



3-17 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



POC 

3-80. The POC transmits movement orders to the guns, sending them to a 
platoon PA. Included in the movement order is the center sector, left and 
right sector limits (if necessary), grid coordinates, SP time, and radius. Other 
instructions should be sent to the howitzer using a plain text message or 
voice communications. 

PHASE III -OCCUPATION OF POSITION 

One Howitzer 

3-81. Once the howitzer stops, the COS records his position from the DU. 
Concurrent with this action, the howitzer's location is independently verified 
by the COS if not GPS aided. Next, the COS presses the arrive key which 
automatically transmits the piece status to the POC. Simultaneously, the 
driver releases the travel lock and the other members of the section conduct 
pre-fi re checks. 

3-82. The COS actions the maximum (max) tube elevation screen, and 
determines/inputs a one-line site entry between his left and right sectors of 
fire. It is recommended that the COS sweep 400 mils left and right of his 
center sector of fire to determine his one line site data. As part of position 
improvement, the COS will establish 6,400 mil site data. These entries will 
cause a warning message to be displayed on the DU if the firing limits are 
violated, except for load elevation. Occupation of position procedures are 
illustrated in theflow chart in Figure 3-5. 



3-18 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Arrive New Position 
Driver Check Index Pin 




No 



Verify Location 



GPS +/- 10 Meters 



351 



Map Spot +/- 100 Meters 



331 



Another M109A6 



J 



Continue Occupation 
Sequence 



Record Location 



Press Arrive 

Perform Site Data 

(one line entry) 




Not 
Required 









M2 Compass +/- 100 Mils 


Required ^ 


ffi 


Tube/Tube +/- 10 Mils 






ffi 




SCP & EOL +/- 2 Mils 







I 



Continue Occupation 
Sequence 



Input min QE 



Send Piece Status 



Ready to Fire 



Prefire Checks 



+1 



POC 



Figure 3-5. Occupation of Position Flow Chart 

3-83. Once these checks are completed, the gun is considered safe and ready 
to fire (RTF). The RTF times are found in ARTE P 6-037-30 MTP, Appendix A 
(Table A-7 for normal occupations and Table A-7.1 for emergency/hi pshoot 
missions). Next, the COS directs position improvements. These actions 
include but are not limited to: verifying boresight; establishing alternate 
aiming points; establishing 6,400 mil site data; visually identifying TRPs; 
establishing sectors of fire for crew served weapons; and transmitting 
updated piece status to the POC. 



3-84. Refer to Chapter 4 for POC occupation drill. 



PHASE IV-DURING FIRING 
Howitzer Crew 



• Section chief announces fire commands. 

• Driver will record commands on the DA Form 4513. 

• Chief verifies that fire commands are applied as announced (projectile, 
charge, and fuze). 



3-19 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• While laying the howitzer, the chief will verify the following to ensure the 
howitzer is properly laid: lay key is backlit, commanded and actual 
deflection/quadrant match, and the warning prompt, "warning tube is not 
in lay position" is not displayed. 

• The gunner verifies the lay data and announces "verified." (If gunner does 
not announce "verified", or data is not correct, "CHECK FIRING!" is 
announced, reason(s) why the command is unsafe are given, and 
corrective action taken) 

• The chief then commands the number 1 man to prime, hook-up, and fire. 

3-85. The POC is responsible to conduct a verification mission every time 
there is a significant change in the database, MVVs, met, and registration 
data. The POC is responsible for verifying that targets do not violate FSCMs 
and that the targets plot within the prescribed target area. It is imperative 
that the FDO or chief computer verifies the plot of the target and the target 
location that is input into the LCU. 



SURVIVABILITY MOVES 



3-86. After completing a survivability move, if the howitzer remains within 
the prescribed radius, the requirement exists to determine site data, verify 
min QE, and transmit piece status (see Figure 3-6). For position 
improvement the howitzer section would input max QE, refine site data, send 
new piece status, and establish alternate aiming points. 



RECORD 

POSITION 

DATA 



H 



PRESS 
ARRIVE 



DETERMINE 
SITE DATA 



CHECK/VERIFY 
MINQE 



SEND PIECE 

STATUS (READY 

TO FIRE) 



Figure 3-6. Occupation from Survivability Move 



EMERGENCY MISSIONS INSIDE FIRING AREA 



3-87. These procedures apply when conducting survivability moves inside an 
assigned radius and the howitzer receives a fire mission. The COS takes the 
following actions: find a suitable location; press arrive key, press use all, and 
press enter on min QE screen; verify immediate crest along the commanded 
deflection and quadrant; and execute the fire mission (see Figure 3-7). There 
is no requirement to recompute firing limits since the howitzer is within its 
assigned radius. 















FIND b 
SUITABLE ► 
LOCATION 


PRESS fc 
ARRIVE KEY 1 * 


VERIFY IMMEDIATE b 

CREST ALONG ► 

COMMANDED DF/QE 


EXECUTE b 

FIRE 
MISSION 













Figure 3-7. Emergency Mission Inside Firing Area 



3-20 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



EMERGENCY MISSIONS OUTSIDE FIRING AREA (HIPSHOOT) 

3-88. The procedures for emergency missions outside the firing area (see 
Figure 3-8) are identical to emergency mission procedures inside a PA. The 
COS must verify his immediate crest along his commanded deflection. The 
POC announcing "fire mission" over the voice net enables the COS to 
reference his movement screen in verifying location. 

3-89. Once the howitzer has stopped moving, if it is not GPS aided, the 
position is checked by a secure GPS and the COS verifies location. 

3-90. The POC will ensure there are no intervening crests and the target does 
not violate any FSCMs. 



(HIPSHOOT) 



POC ANNOUNCES "FIRE MISSION" FM VOICE 




FIND SUITABLE LOCATION, STOP 



VERIFY LOCATION (IF NOT GPS AIDED) 



VERIFY DIRECTION (IF REQUIRED BY LOCAL SOP) 



] 



PRESS ARRIVE KEY 



VERIFY CREST ALONG COMMANDED DF/QE 



EXECUTE FIRE MISSION 



Figure 3-8. Emergency Mission Outside Firing Area (Hipshoot) 



VERIFYING DIRECTION 



3-91. The DRU-H is extremely accurate and dependable in maintaining 
directional control for the Paladin system. There is no requirement for the 
operator to check the Paladin for directional control during normal 
operations. However; some units may require operators conduct verification 
of direction of the system. If verification of direction is used, the following 
proven techniques will give leaders a reasonable assurance that directional 
control of the Paladin is operational. The COS must always be aware of the 
AOF as it relates to the tactical situation. This is particularly important 
when traveling or conducting survivability moves, as the section chief can 
position to shoot emergency missions and resolve mask problems during 
occupation much faster. During occupation, the COS should ensure the 
howitzer hull and gun tube is oriented along the AOF. This will ensurefaster 



3-21 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



mission times when attacking targets along the AOF. Before he takes the 
tube from travel lock, he may conduct verification of direction to ensure the 
system is reporting proper direction. He can verify direction using the M2 
compass method, tube to tube method, or any of the methods listed in FM 6- 
50. The method used is determined by METT-TC. The M2 compass method is 
normally faster than the tube to tube method, but the latter method allows 
all section members to remain in the howitzer. 

The M2 Compass Method 

3-92. The gunner exits the howitzer and moves to the rear of the piece not 
less than 10 meters to get an accurate reading from the compass. He orients 
the compass by siting along the side of the turret or along the length of the 
tube. The compass reading must be within 100 mils of the azimuth displayed 
ontheAFCS. 

The Tube to Tube Method 

3-93. The gunner sites through the bore of the cannon and aligns his gun tube 
on the gun tube of a second howitzer. Both gun tubes are pointed directly at 
each other and the subordinate chief/wingman reads his azimuth of lay to the 
senior chief. The senior chief then reads his AFCS azimuth and compares the 
two (adding or subtracting 3,200 mils as required). If the wingman is 
positioned to the left of the team leader, the senior chief adds 3,200, and if to 
the right, he subtracts 3,200. The two readings must be within 10 mils to be 
valid. If performing the tube to tube method during platoon operations, the 
procedure is faster if the senior chief flanks his wingmen. The two wingmen 
orient on the senior chief and the senior chief sequentially verifies direction 
with each of his wingmen. 



SECTION VI - COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT 



3-94. The principles for CSS do not differ significantly from FM 6-20-1. The 
primary responsibility for CSS rests with the battalion. The battery 
leadership must be prepared to execute with sound TSOPs and TLPs. The 
decentralized nature of Paladin CSS operations demands development of 
coordinated and standardized procedures. The following concepts ensure 
logistics requirements are met effectively and efficiently. These concepts are 
guides that can be tailored to meet the needs of any type of Paladin 
organization to include separate howitzer batteries in the armored cavalry 
regiment (ACR). The organization of the "battalion trains" varies with METT- 
TC. For a Paladin battalion, the trains are organized for combat as dual 
trains: the field trains and combat trains. This type of organization provides 
immediate responsive forward support, flexible resource usage, and increased 
resou rce su r vi va bi I i ty . 

COMBAT TRAINS 

3-95. The combat trains should be close enough to the forward line of own 
troops (FLOT) to be responsive to the forward units. If possible, it should not 
be within range of enemy direct fire. In less fluid operations, it is normally 



3-22 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



located about 5-8 km behind the battery or platoon firing positions and 2-3 
km from the TOC. It is organized to provide immediate critical CSS and to 
support multiple LRPs. In highly mobile operations, it may be necessary to 
position CSS elements forward to facilitate rapid R3SP operations. 

COMPOSITION 

3-96. Listed below is an example of a combat trains. Actual composition will 
be based on the mission of the battalion and METT-TC. 

• Recovery assets (up to three M 88Als and one H E MTT wrecker). 

• One-third of the ammunition palletized load system (PLS) vehicles. 

• Battalion aid station (BAS). 

• Administrative logistics operations center (ALOC) (include enough S1/S4 
personnel to man two shifts). 

• One-half of the petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) section. 

• Unit maintenance collection point (UMCP) includes required 
maintenance personnel and assets. 

• SCP/CCP (situation permitting). 

• DS maintenance contact team (-). 

RESPONSIBILITIES 

HHB Commander 

3-97. The HHB commander is responsible for combat trains operations to 
include: RSOP; movement; internal operations; and the preparation of 
R3SPs. He coordinates litter team support for the BAS and conducts TLPs 
necessary to meet mission requirements for all elements of the combat trains. 



HHB 1SG 



S4 



3-98. The lSG's primary responsibility is administering the personnel and 
logistical matters of the combat trains and the TOC. He assists the HHB 
commander in conducting reconnaissance and coordinating perimeter 
defense. He further coordinates with the battalion ammunition officer (BAO) 
for locating and securing flat rack transfer points (FRTPs). 



3-99. The S4 supervises the ALOC, maintains the situation map, and tracks 
the battle to ensure execution of CSS triggers. He is further responsible, 
during the battalion orders process, for coordinating with the XO, S3, HHB 
commander, and service BC in selecting potential trains, LRP, and R3SP 
locations. 



Battalion Ammunition Officer (BAO) 



3-100. The BAO coordinates with the S3, XO, and S4 in planning and 
executing the ammunition distribution plan. He monitors the command and 
administration and logistics (A/L) nets for ammunition requirements. 
Additionally, he coordinates with the HHB commander and the XO in the 
reconnaissance and preparation of R3SP sites. 



3-23 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Personnel Services NCO (PSNCO) 

3-101. The PSNCO istheNCOIC of theALOC. He monitors nets and ensures 
logistics and personnel reports are received and forwarded to the battalion 
support operations center (BSOC). Additionally, he assists the S4 with battle 
tracking. 

Battalion Maintenance Technician (BMT) 

3-102. The BMT supervises the UMCP; assesses deadlined and damaged 
equipment; and recommends when, where, and how to best make repairs 
based on guidance from the BMO, XO, and the factors of METT-TC. 

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS 

3-103. TheALOC provides C2 for all CSS functions of the combat trains. Asa 
forward deployed logistical unit, the combat trains provides firing platoons 
with immediate resupply (Class 1 1 1 , V, VI 1 1 ) and mass casualty support. The 
combat trains must maintain the capability to rearm and refuel the platoons. 
Combat trains personnel exchange empty fuel trucks and PLS flat racks for 
full fuel trucks and PLS combat configured loads (CCLs) as they are pushed 
forward from the field trains. The UMCP is established to provide forward 
maintenance support to the battalion. The combat trains also provides 
medical support to the battalion through the BAS and supporting litter 
teams. Litter teams are special teams and are assembled from non-medical 
personnel assigned to the combat trains. Medical personnel must not be 
distracted from treating the wounded to carry litters and send routine radio 
traffic. 

FIELD TRAINS 

3-104. The field trains is organized of elements not included in the combat 
trains and not required for immediate support of the batteries. It is normally 
located 15-20 km behind the FLOT (METT-TC driven) in an area providing 
easy access to main supply routes (MSRs), the brigade support area (BSA), 
and forward units. 

COMPOSITION 

3-105. The field trains consists of the following elements: 

• BSOC (S1/S4 sections minus those assigned to the combat trains). 

• Remaining ammunition PLS vehicles (those not forward). 

• Consolidated food service sections. 

• Battalion maintenance section (-). 

• DS maintenance contact team (-). 

• Remaining POL assets (those not forward). 

• Battery supply sections. 



3-24 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



RESPONSIBILITIES 
Battalion XO 



Service BC 



Service 1SG 



SI 



S4NCOIC 



3-106. The XO oversees all the logistical resupply functions of the battalion. 
He coordinates with the S3 concerning resupply and tactical operations. The 
XO operates where he can best influence the battalion's CSS effort. 



3-107. The service BC serves as the field trains commander and is 
responsible for the RSOP, movement, and internal operations. He performs 
troop leading procedures and time management to ensure Class I, 
ammunition, fuel, and repair parts are pushed forward to meet mission 
requirements. 



3-108. The service 1SG assists the service BC and coordinates with BSA 
personnel for local security of the trains and soldier support activities. 



3-109. The SI supervises the BSOC with the primary duty of personnel 
management. He maintains the situation map, tracks the battle to ensure 
execution of CSS triggers, and coordinates with the forward support battalion 
(FSB) medical company commander for planning medical support. 



3-110. The S4 NCOIC monitors nets and ensures logistics and personnel 
reports are received from the ALOC and forwarded to the FSB. He oversees 
the logistics package (LOGPAC) to ensure requests for supplies are received 
from the FSB and assembled onto the trucks for delivery with the LOGPAC. 
Additionally, he assists the SI with battle tracking. 

Battalion Ammunition NCO 

3-111. The battalion ammunition NCO assists the BAO with resupply 
operations, manages ammunition vehicles, supervises driver's schedules, and 
resupply operations to the brigade ammunition transfer point (ATP). 

Battalion Maintenance Officer (BMO) 

3-112. The BMO advises the BSOC of the battalion's maintenance status. He 
manages the battalion maintenance area, overseeing the operations of the DS 
maintenance contact team. He coordinates with the BMT and maintenance 
sergeant for Class IX resupply and major assemblies replacement. 

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS 

3-113. The field trains continuously anticipates, requests, coordinates, and 
conducts CSS operations. As required by the tactical mission, the field trains 
pulls supplies from the BSA, pushing them forward to the combat trains, 
LRP, and R3SP. The BSOC serves as the coordination and control center for 



3-25 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



the battalion S4 section, personnel and administration center, maintenance 
elements not forward located, and the battalion supply section. 

BATTALION RESUPPLY 

3-114. The battalion resupply system functions are described in FM 6-20-1 
and FM 6-50, Chapter 12. 

CLASS I OPERATIONS 

3-115. The battalion is the lowest level that should prepare and issue rations. 

3-116. The battery lSGs oversee Class I operations through the use of the 
battery supply sergeants located in the field trains. The battery supply 
sergeants will receive the Class I items and deliver them through the 
battalion LOGPAC to the batteries. Units should develop T SOP s addressing 
Class I operations that are characterized by dispersion and high operating 
tempo (Paladin tactics). 

CLASS III OPERATIONS 

3-117. Battalion Class III operations are managed and controlled by the C2 
elements of the trains. The fuel consumption of the M 109A6 is greater than 
previous M109 series howitzers due to increased mobility and the 
requirement to run the engine during the conduct of fire missions. The 
increased demand for fuel requires detailed planning during mission 
analysis. Units will resupply at scheduled intervals, for normal operations, 
and push fuel forward as required during periods of increased optempo. Units 
should consider the following when developing TSOPs: 

• The battalion's tankers receive fuel from the FSB in the BSA and are 
positioned in the field trains and combat trains. 

• During normal operations, a platoon is refueled at the R3SP site or 
through LRP operations. However, the platoon/battery can coordinate 
with the ALOC for emergency POL support. The HEMTT tanker links up 
with the platoon/battery at the predesignated refuel point, conducts the 
refuel, and then returns to its base of operation or refuel location. 

• As the combat trains runs low on Class III, fuel can betransloaded to one 
tanker and the ALOC coordinates with the BSOC for replacement 
tankers. 

CLASS V OPERATIONS 

3-118. The Paladin battalion must organize the ammunition platoon to 
operate efficiently and routinely. The battery ammunition PLSs are managed 
at the battalion level. A section of three PLSs remain habitually dedicated to 
each battery to facilitate command and control. The same section should 
resupply the same battery as often as possible. This practice allows each 
ammunition section chief and his BC to exercise established battery internal 
resupply operations, troop leading procedures, and simplifies navigation 
to/from that battery during static operations. The PLS supports this 
technique with quick and easy flat rack exchange. Ammunition section chiefs 
must control battery ammunition resupply I AW battalion/battery directives. 
The S3, S4, and XO coordinate priorities and issue guidance to the BAO. The 



3-26 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



BAO or S4 issues the distribution plan to commanders at the field artillery 
support plan (FASP) briefing. BCs include ammunition resupply in their 
battery orders, rehearsals, and TLPs. Resupply may routinely be 
accomplished by the double loop, the single loop, R3SP, or any combination of 
these methods. 

Double Loop Method 

3-119. The double loop method is the quickest, most efficient, and normally 
the preferred method of resupply. The ammunition platoon must operate 
across the entire brigade zone. The battalion must organize the ammunition 
platoon to facilitate command and control of the double loop method. A 
preferred technique is to position three PLSs with each firing battery and 
position the remaining nine between the combat trains and field trains. This 
organization, based on METT-TC, establishes a basis for routine operations. 
The double loop method utilizes the PLS's flat rack swapping capabilities 
with ammunition uploaded on flat racks in the ATP, and pushed forward to a 
FRTP. Trucks carrying empty flat racks from a battery resupply point, 
exchange their empty for a full flat rack at the FRTP. Trucks with loaded flat 
racks return to their battery, a resupply point, or the combat trains. Trucks 
with empty flat racks return to the ATP. When possible, establish the FRTP 
in the vicinity of the combat trains. 

Single Loop Method 

3-120. I n the single loop method, operators draw ammunition from the ATP 
and deliver to the battery position. This method may be required for 
emergencies such as late ammunition shipments to the ATP or last minute 
changes to the resupply plan. Success depends on the ability of each driver to 
navigate between the ATP and the battery location. This requires detailed 
movement briefings or a leader to personally guide the convoy. Empty 
flatracks are returned as directed. 

3-121. Regardless of the method of resupply, the battalion must maintain 
strict ammunition accountability and lot management. This ensures 
adequate amounts of a single propel lant and projectile lot are on hand. The 
S4, S3, and BAO develop several flat rack load plans for theTSOP. Flat rack 
load plans may be CCLs based on the battalion's basic load, controlled supply 
rate (CSR), unit mission, and EFATs. Flat rack load plans may include trucks 
loaded by type (i.e., all dual-purpose improved conventional munitions 
(DPI CM)) or trucks with a mixture of munitions supporting EFATs (i.e., area 
denial artillery munitions (ADAM )/r emote antiarmor mine systems 
(RAAMSs) for a medium density minefield). 

REARM, REFUEL, RESUPPLY, AND SURVEY POINTS (R3SP) 

3-122. The battalion staff must consider the advantages and disadvantages of 
the R3SP. The R3SP is the most expedient method to resupply. It is the most 
convenient means for the battery leadership, as their involvement is 
minimized. The R3SP may be used at the battery level when distance and 
location prevent the use of a battalion R3SP. R3SPs are established along the 
route the platoon travels as it makes a tactical move. This is a "get in and get 
out" operation. The goal is to refuel, rearm, and resupply in less than 30 



3-27 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



minutes. When possible the Paladin will be rearmed by their FAASVs prior 
to a tactical move. This simplifies the R3SP, allowing the howitzers to bypass 
the rearm area and move directly to the refuel area. Actions performed at the 
R3SP include: refueling; rearming of the FAASVs; updating navigation 
systems; issuing POL products; and the distribution of rations, mail, 
sundries, and other items. 

3-123. In concert with the XO and S3, the S4 identifies the location of the 
R3SP. The HHB commander/BAO/RSO reconnoiters the site, and coordinates 
for POL, ammunition, other classes of supplies, and survey to establish SCPs. 
A technique is to establish SCPs next to the tankers so that the howitzers can 
update their navigation systems as they receive fuel. 

3-124. The rearm and refuel operations are separated by 300-600 meters. The 
rearm operation requires a 500-800 meter area with approximately 100 
meters between flat racks. The refuel operations require a 200-400 meter 
area with 50-100 meters between the HEMTT tankers. The actual size of the 
R3SP will be terrain dependent. Once refueled, the howitzers continue on to 
their next position. The POC and FAASVs complete rearm and refuel 
operations and continue their tactical moves. 

LOGISTICS PACKAGE (LOGPAC) OPERATIONS 

3-125. The most efficient method of resupply is accomplished through 
LOGPACs. FM 6-20-1 discusses LOGPAC operations. Class 1,111, and IX are 
routinely delivered via the LOGPAC. Additional classes of supply may be 
included in the LOGPAC based on unit requirements. Units may submit 
daily personnel, logistics, and maintenance reports (hard copy reports that 
supplement and clarify FM feeder reports) with the LOGPAC. 

3-126. The LOGPAC is assembled in the field trains. LOGPACs are organized 
for each battery and separate elements in the battalion. Once assembled, the 
vehicles move to the LRP under the control of an 01 C or NCOIC. At the LRP 
a battery representative receives his LOGPAC and conducts unit level 
resupply. Following resupply, the trucks assemble at the LRP and return to 
the field trains. 

3-127. The ideal place for the battalion's logisticians to meet and coordinate 
logistics requirements is the LRP. Here they rehearse future logistics 
operations, discuss changes to plans, and review personnel, logistics, and 
maintenance reports. 

3-128. The LOGPAC offers many advantages. The most significant is 
increased C2 for moving supplies over the long distances. It provides the 
framework for safely moving supplies without stifling the initiative of 
individual supply sergeants. Effective LOGPAC operations reduce the 
number of trips between the field trains and forward deployed units. Finally, 
LOGPAC operations provide the proper setting to exchange information. 

3-129. The battalion S4 plans and coordinates LOGPAC operations to ensure 
they fully support the commander's tactical plan. Planning must begin early, 
be METT-TC dependent, and updated continuously to ensure subordinate 
units are properly supported. 



3-28 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



BATTERY RESUPPLY 

CLASS I OPERATIONS 



3-130. The battery lSGs oversee the Class I operations through the battery 
supply sergeants located in the field trains. The battery supply sergeants will 
receive the Class I items and deliver them through the battalion LOGPAC. 
Batteries will normally maintain a 3-day supply of water and rations. 



CLASS III OPERATIONS 



3-131. The fuel consumption of the M109A6 is greater than previous M109 
series howitzers due to increased mobility and the requirement to run the 
engine during the conduct of fire missions. The increased demand for fuel 
requires detailed planning during mission analysis. Battery Class III 
resupply is normally provided through LOGPAC or R3SP operations. 

CLASS V OPERATIONS 

3-132. Frequent movement complicates ammunition resupply. The BC must 
ensure the orderly flow of ammunition from the battalion to the battery. He 
must be proactive, including ammunition resupply in his TLPs. Platoon 
leaders, platoon sergeants, section chiefs, ammunition section chiefs, and 
ATCs must ensure that operators of FAASVs and PLS vehicles are aware of 
pickup points, routes, and when they can anticipate resupply to occur. 
Ammunition resupply is accomplished from either a battery or a platoon 
rearm point. 

Battery Rearm Point 

3-133. The battery rearm point is normally established on the movement 
route and centrally located between the two platoons. Rearm can then be 
accomplished as the unit moves to the next location. This site can easily be 
converted to a battery R3SP by coordinating for survey and with the combat 
trains for additional classes of supply. A typical battery rearm point would 
have two flat racks, capable of simultaneously servicing six FAASVs. Each 
section would take 58 rounds, from the two flat racks (each flat rack carries a 
standard 176-round CCL). Another setup might have one flat rack on the 
ground and require sections from each platoon rotate through the rearm 
point. Each section would take 29 rounds from the 176-round CCL flat rack. 
It is important to empty flat racks as soon as possible so they can be returned 
to the ATP and continue the battalion's ammunition push. 

Platoon Rearm Point 

3-134. The platoon rearm point is similar to that of the battery. However, 
establishing one per platoon facilitates autonomous operations. When the 
platoons are widely separated, this is the preferred method. The platoon 
rearm point is centrally located outside of each firing area. While this method 
reduces turnaround time for the FAASVs, it is more difficult for the 
ammunition section chief to control and may slow the turnaround time for 
the PLSs. A typical platoon rearm point would have one flat rack with a 176 
CCL positioned on the ground and three sections would rearm 58 rounds 
each. As is the case with a battery rearm point, the platoon rearm site can be 



3-29 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



positioned for rearm enroute to the next location and, if necessary, can be 
converted to a battery R3SP. 



PLATOON RESUPPLY 

CLASS I & III OPERATIONS 



3-135. Platoon Class I and III operations are managed by the platoon 
leader/platoon sergeant and are coordinated through the battery 1SG. 

CLASS V OPERATIONS 

3-136. There are two options available to the platoon leader for delivery of 
Class V to the individual sections. The method used depends upon the 
required mix, the rate of ammunition expenditure, and expected enemy 
threat. 

One FAASV- One Howitzer 

3-137. One approach is to permanently assign one FAASV per howitzer 
section. The assigned FAASV resupplies Class V to the howitzer section. 
After resupplying, the FAASV crew provides the COS a properly completed 
DA Form 5969-R (reference FM 6-50). This form will facilitate the update of 
the section ammunition inventory in the AFCS. The COS adds this 
ammunition to his on-board totals and transmits the overall total to the POC. 
The inventory must reflect the ammunition status of the howitzer and the 
FAASV. This facilitates the automated management of ammunition. 

FAASVs in Support of a Platoon 

3-138. Using this method, FAASVs are controlled by the platoon sergeant. 
Two FAASVs will resupply the howitzers, while the third is conducting rearm 
or performing overwatch. When two FAASVs have depleted their Class V 
supply, they are dispatched to the battery or platoon rearm point and the 
third takes over resupply of the howitzers. This method ensures availability 
of ammunition. However, it complicates ammunition accountability. The chief 
will not be able to input all of the "on-site" ammunition into the AFCS. The 
unit must have written procedures to account for the ammunition in the 
FAASVs. 

3-139. When the expenditure rate is extremely high, "FAASVs in support of a 
platoon" better facilitates Class V resupply. During periods of minimal 
ground threat, "one FAASV - one howitzer" enhances the task of ammunition 
accountability. Regardless of the method of resupply, the POC is ultimately 
responsible to accurately report ammunition accountability. Consider the 
following information when planning ammunition resupply operations: 

• The M109A6 basic load is 37 complete conventional rounds and two 
Copperhead rounds. 

• The FAASV basic load is 90 conventional rounds and three Copperhead 
rounds. 

• The FAASV may average from one to five rearming moves per day in 
addition to tactical and survivability moves. 



3-30 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Ensure M109A6 has 100% of its basic load (Consider ammunition 
required for EFATs) prior to FAASV departing for resupply operations. 
When establishing resupply triggers, consider multiples of 8 to facilitate 
flat rack (155mm pallet) operations. Additionally, at the howitzer section 
level, it is recommended to establish numeric resupply triggers in lieu of 
"red, amber, green" status. 



UNIT MAINTENANCE 

OPERATOR/CREW MAINTENANCE 



3-140. The Paladin crew performs PMCS, visual inspection, cleaning, and 
maintenance tasks authorized in applicable operator level technical manuals. 

3-141. BITE allows for failure isolation to component and or line replaceable 
unit (LRU) as appropriate. The PDIU monitors M109A6 systems and 
provides feedback to the crew. 

3-142. The platoon must set aside time to allow the Paladin sections to 
perform routine scheduled maintenance without greatly degrading the ability 
of the platoon to fire. This should be accomplished as part of the overall 
continuous operations plan in effect at any given time. 



ORGANIZATIONAL MAINTENANCE 



3-143. The battalion's organizational maintenance assets provide timely 
maintenance and recovery support. They are located in battery PAs, combat 
trains (UMCP), field trains (battalion maintenance area), and in remote 
element locations to facilitate rapid response to the Paladin battalion. 



DIRECT SUPPORT MAINTENTANCE 



RECOVERY 



3-144. DS maintenance is mobile, deployed forward, and designed for "repair 
by replacement" operations. DS contact teams from the FSBs perform 
maintenance. Normally, these teams are positioned in the battalion field 
trains. The platoon leaders coordinate DS maintenance support through the 
BC and the ALOC as required. Contact teams can repair most non- 
operational equipment at the platoon PA. Items beyond the repair 
capabilities of the contact team (such as communications, electronics, or NBC 
equipment) are replaced with a serviceable part, and the faulty part is 
evacuated for repair. 



3-145. The Paladin battalion's tracked recovery vehicles (M88Als) are 
positioned to facilitate any required recovery missions. They may be located 
in the combat trains or forward in the battery PAs. If the contact team or the 
DS maintenance team cannot repair the equipment on site, the recovery 
vehicle evacuates it to the UMCP or the field trains. The recovery vehicle 
may remain with the equipment to assist in repairs or move it if 
displacement is required. Once the vehicle is repaired, the recovery vehicle 
returns to the combat trains or PAs IAW unit TSOP. Guidelines for 
determining whether to repair on site or evacuate are found in FM 6-20-1. 



3-31 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



The tactical situation and the anticipated length of time to complete the 
repair are primary factors in determining if evacuation is necessary. 

CASUALTY EVACUATION 

3-146. Special consideration must be given to casualty evacuation in a 
Paladin battalion to reinforce responsiveness and dispersion. For a battalion 
to administer proper care to its wounded, the following medical assets are 
needed for routine evacuation. 

MEDICAL TREATMENT TEAM 

3-147. This team includes an emergency treatment NCO and two medical 
specialists. Equipment includes two HMMWVs, one secure FM radio, two 
chemically and biologically protected shelter systems, and medical equipment 
sets for field trauma, sick call, chemical agent decontamination, and chemical 
agent treatment. 

AMBULANCE TEAMS 

3-148. This team consists of one evacuation NCO and an ambulance driver 
per ambulance. It supports the medical treatment team in the firing batteries 
and battalion in medical evacuation. Equipment includes four HMMWV 
ambulances with FM radios, and secure GPSs. 

COMBAT MEDIC SQUAD 

3-149. This squad consists of six combat medical specialists. One combat 
medic is allocated per firing platoon. Each medic carries a surgical kit. 

MASS CASUALTIES 

3-150. For mass casualty evacuation, the battalion must rely on its combat 
lifesavers and organic transport capabilities in addition to its medical section 
personnel and medical transport capabilities. For planning purposes, a cargo 
HMMWV can transport up to five litter casualties and a 2 1/2-ton truck or 5- 
ton truck can transport up to 12 casualties (see FM 8-10-6, Medical 
Evacuation in a Theater of Operations TTP). Battalion or battery TSOPs 
should address a standard layout for a casualty collection point at the BAS 
and battery or platoon. Litter teams need to be identified and trained at 
every separate element within the battalion. Combat medics, combat 
lifesavers, and litter teams must conduct rehearsals to ensure they can 
effectively collect, provide aid, and transport casualties. 

3-151. The battalion addresses, in the FASP, those actions to be taken in the 
event of mass casualties. If only one battery or platoon is hit, the closest 
battery provides combat lifesavers and evacuation vehicles. If two batteries 
are hit, the surviving battery and the combat trains provide assistance. When 
two or three batteries are hit, mass casualty assistance will likely have to 
come from brigade or task force assets. In any mass causality event, the 
battalion must resist diverting medical personnel from the BSA. The limited 
number of medical personnel should remain at the combat trains providing 
C2, through the combat trains/ALOC, and casualty assistance in a protected 
environment. 



3-32 



Chapter 4 

Delivery of Fires 

The POC is the C2 center for the Paladin howitzer platoon. Battery and 
platoon operations are similar in many ways to those in platoon-based 
M109A5 battalions. However, the primary focus of the Paladin POC is 
significantly different. Where the first priority of the M109A5 FDC is 
technical fire direction, the single most critical function of the M109A6 
POC is database management. 

POC RESPONSIBILITIES 

4-1. Platoon-based operations and the ability of the Paladin to compute its 
own technical firing data have caused the traditional FDC to assume a 
broader role, performing tactical as well as technical fire direction. The 
Paladin POC's key responsibilities are: 

• Perform database management. 

• Provide survivability move criteria for the howitzers within the firing 
area and for tactical moves from one firing area to another. 

• Perform tactical fire direction to ensure that the firing data is safe and 
does not violate maneuver boundaries, restrictive FSCMs, and 
intervening crests. 

• Perform technical fire direction for special fire missions assigned by the 
battalion to the platoon. 

• During some degraded operations, assume direct control of the technical 
fire direction and send firing data to the howitzers. 

• Assume control of all six howitzers and act as the BOC if directed by the 
BC. 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 

AFCS Input 

4-2. During normal operations of the Paladin platoon, the on-board AFCS in 
each howitzer performs technical fire direction. After receipt of the 
initialization data (HOW;SBT, SPRT;MAP, MET;CM, AFU;REG) from the 
POC, the AFCS operator must input specific information regarding the 
howitzer. This information constitutes the database that the AFCS must 
continuously maintain if the Paladin is to be able to provide accurate 
predicted fires. The database information input at the AFCS includes current 
location, propellant temperature, load elevation and maximum tube 
elevation, site data, MVVs, and ammunition status. 



4-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



AFCS/LCU Databases 

4-3. Much of the data above is maintained in the nonvolatile memory of the 
AFCS, thus facilitating reinitialization following a normal shutdown. In case 
of a Paladin system failure, after the system is restored to operational status, 
the AFCS can and should request database information from the LCU. It is 
critical that database information is received, stored, updated, and 
maintained in the LCU at the POC as well as in the AFCS. J ust as the AFCS 
can request database information from the LCU, the LCU operator can 
request the information from the AFCS for verification of the data the 
computer is maintaining for each individual howitzer. This duplicate 
database ensures that the Paladin can request accurate data to reinitialize 
quickly. Also, it allows the LCU to compute accurate firing data with the 
AFCS database, if required. 

4-4. Whenever the AFCS or LCU resumes operations after a non-operational 
period, the LCU and the AFCS should exchange database information and 
conduct a verification mission to ensure consistency between the two 
elements. No matter how brief the shutdown period, the POC should assume 
that changes occurred. 

Information Management Requirements 

4-5. The capabilities of the on-board ballistic computer (AFCS) of the M109A6 
generate a substantial increase in information management requirements for 
the POC. Each howitzer section has its own unique set of database 
information (such as location and AOF). The LCU database receives input 
from each howitzer AFCS. Likewise, the AFCS receives certain LCU 
information. Accurate and timely information management between systems 
is a must. Organization and training of the POC is necessary to properly 
manage database information. 

Database I nformation 

4-6. All database information should be readily available in the LCU. 
Obtaining this information from the LCU during fire mission processing may 
be inconvenient however. Therefore, a system of charts, checklists and 
overlays are necessary to show the FDO howitzer status, database 
information, and each howitzer's current location. Examples of status charts 
are as follows: POC LCU Checklist (Figure 4-1); Database Management 
Chart (Figure 4-2); and Example Platoon Ammunition Status Chart (Figures 
4-3 and 4-4). 



4-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



INITIALIZATION: 


YES 


NO 


1. Load weapon-dependent program or restore database recording. 






2. SYSTEM 
SETUP 


Verify initialization information. 






3. SYS;COMM 


Verify communications characteristics. 






4. SYS;SBT 


Verify subscriber table. 






5. HOW;SBT 


Verify computer-generated entries. 






6. SPRT;MAP 


Verify area of operations. 






7. AFU;UPDATE 


Verify platoon data to be stored in the database. 






DATABASE: 






1. HOW;UPDATE 


Verify Paladin locations and status. 






2. HOW;AMOUP 


Verify ammunition status. 






3. AFU;MASK 


Verify Paladin mask data. 






4. MET;CM 


Verify meteorological data. 






5. FM;OBCO 


Verify observer files. 






6. SPRT;GEOM 


Verify support geometry. 






7. BCS;MVV 


Verify M V data for the Paladins. 






8.AFU;REG 


Verify registration file by charge and firing position. 






9. Conduct verification mission. 






OPERATIONS: 






1. Verify powder temperature at least every two hours. 






2. Verify target locations before transmitting fire missions to the 
Paladins. 






3. Measure and compensate for intervening crests. 






4. Control and verify positioning of Paladins during survivability moves. 






5. Transmit tactical information by use of the AFU;UP DATE message 
using the SYS;PTM to battalion. 







Figure 4-1. POC LCU Checklist 



4-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



MaxE: MaxN: 
Min E: Min N: 
MAPMOD: 


Grid Zone: 


Sphere: 
Datum: 


SYS:PTM Data: 


Move Order 

Grid: Left Center Right Max Load Powder Status Remarks 
Sector: Sector: Sector: Elev Elev Temp 


1/1 


















1/2 


















1/3 


















2/1 


















2/2 


















2/3 


















DateTimeGroup (DTG) of Current Met Message: 


Other Information: 



Figure 4-2. Database Management Chart 



PROJ ECTILE 


BCSCODE 


LOT 


gun m. 


GUN #2 


GUN #3 


TOTAL 


HE 
M107 


HEA 


A 
B 










RAP 
M549A1 


HER 


A 
B 










ICM 
M449A1 


HEE 


A 
B 










Illumination 
M485 


ILA 


A 
B 










DPICM 
M483A1 


HEF 


A 
B 










DPICM 
M864DB 


HEF 


A 
B 










ADAM Long 
M731 


APL 


A 
B 










ADAM Short 


APS 


A 
B 










Smoke 
M825 


SMC 


A 
B 










RAAMS Long 
M718A1 


AML 


A 
B 










RAAMS Short 
M741A1 


AMS 


A 
B 










Copperhead 
M712 


CPH 


A 
B 










OTHER 




A 
B 











Figure 4-3. Example Platoon Ammunition Status Chart 



4-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PROPELLANTS 


BCS 
CODE 


LOT 


GUN 

#1 


GUN 

#2 


GUN 

#3 


EXTENDED 
LOT# 


TOTAL 


Charge 3-7 
M4A2 
















Charge 8 
M119A1 
















Charge 7(Red) 
M H9A2 
















Charge 8 Super 
M203 
















Charge 8 Super 
M203A1 
















FUZES 


Proximity 
M732 


VTB 














Proximity 
M728 


VTE 














MTSQ 
M564 


TIA 














MTSQ 
M582 


TID 














MTSQ 
M767 


TIG 














PDSQ/D 
M557 


PDA 














PDSQ/D 
M739 


PDB 














Mech Time 
M565 


TIF 














Mech Time 
M577 


TIB 














Mech Time 
M762 


TIH 














CP 
MK 399 


PDE 















Figure 4-4. Example Platoon Ammunition Status Chart Continued 



4-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



HOWITZER MOVE ME NT AND LAND MANAGEMENT 
Survivability Movement Control 

4-7. One of the POC's key responsibilities is to control survivability 
movement of the howitzers within the firing area. The two methods the POC 
can use for this movement are centralized control and decentralized control. 

4-8. Centralized Control. When using this method of control, the POC 
directly controls all howitzer movement. The POC designates the new 
location as a grid location, direction and distance, or quadrant. In the 
quadrant method a radius is drawn oriented to the AOF to facilitate the 
layout of quadrants (upper left-quadrant 1, lower left-quadrant 2, upper 
right-quadrant 3, and lower right-quadrant 4). The howitzers move on the 
specific order of the POC via a plain text message (PTM ) or a voice command 
over the battery/platoon command net. Centralized control is best used under 
the following conditions: when deploying on limited terrain; when one or 
more howitzers have experienced system failures; when the commander 
wants to exercise maximum control; or the battery has inexperienced crews. 
This method of control increases the likelihood of accomplishment of 
supporting EFATs and allows the platoon leader and/or FDO to position 
assets based on the other friendly elements collocated in the platoon PA. 

4-9. Decentralized Control. This method of control takes full advantage of 
the Paladin's capabilities. Each howitzer is deployed to its own assigned area 
of operation. Howitzer sections are allowed to move within the firing area at 
the discretion of the senior COS. Commander's guidance, the unit TSOP, the 
threat (for example, counterfire or ground attack), or METT-TC dictate 
movement of the howitzers (movement criteria). The disadvantages of this 
method are as follows: 

• The POC must wait for the howitzer to arrive in its new position and 
report piece status (digital or voice) in order to post the howitzer location 
ontheHTC. 

• If there are problems with the new position (i.e., if it is too close to 
another Paladin's radius or friendly element), the POC must immediately 
initiate another move. Radii cannot overlap. 

• The difficulty of coordinating platoon security is increased. 

• The probability of two or more howitzers locating too close together or 
occupying a position recently vacated by another section is increased. 

4-10. Whether centralized or decentralized, the platoon leader exercises the 
option of specifying a grid or a quadrant within the firing area radius or 
allows the platoon sergeants to move howitzers the minimum and maximum 
distances (METT-TC dependent). 

Position Area Movement and the Howitzer Tracking Chart 

4-11. Tracking the movement of three (and possibly as many as six) howitzers 
is a full-time job for one person in the POC. He must plot the locations on the 
HTC, post the current information on the database management chart, and 
provide a recommendation to the platoon leader and/or FDO regarding the 
proposed location for the howitzer's next move within the firing area. 



4-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



4-12. The HTC is normally prepared on a piece of preprinted chart paper with 
each grid square representing 200 meters. The HTC is overlaid on a large- 
scale (normally 1:10,000) map and used to track the movement of the 
individual howitzers. It is prepared for each platoon PA and is used to 
manage the movement of the howitzers within the firing area and the PA so 
that they do not endanger themselves or other friendly elements. 

4-13. Plotting Procedure. The HTC operator monitors howitzer movement 
on the tracking chart using color-coded tic marks. The upper right quadrant 
of the tic mark is labeled as follows: Platoon #Gun #. A black tic mark 
represents a howitzer's current location. A red tic mark represents the past 
location of the howitzer. A blue tic mark represents a howitzer's future 
location (used only during centralized operations). In decentralized 
operations, only black and red tick marks are used. When a new 
HOW;UPDATE message is received, the grid will be verified on the HTC and 
updated as necessary. 

4-14. Chart Use. The platoon leader and/or FDO uses the HTC in one of two 
ways. If the platoon is operating under centralized control (Figure 4-5), the 
platoon leader/FDO looks at the chart and determines a new location that 
ensures mission accomplishment and will not endanger the howitzers or 
other friendly elements. He then directs movement via digital or voice radio. 
The message is given either as a new position grid, as a direction and 
distance for displacement, or by telling the senior COS which quadrant to go 
to. 

4-15. If the platoon is operating under decentralized control, the platoon 
leader/FDO monitors the firing positions as reported by the sections as they 
occupy. He ensures that the howitzers remain within their assigned firing 
area and that they do not threaten friendly elements by positioning too 
closely to them. In the decentralized mode, thePOC intercedes only if there is 
a problem. The platoon sergeants are normally in the best position to select 
positions based upon guidance received from the platoon leader. 

4-16. Use of the HTC is mission and METT-TC dependent. For example, the 
HTC is very useful while fighting a deliberate defense. However, if 
conducting a movement to contact or a hasty attack it would be 
counterproductive to use the HTC until the platoon/battery has stopped and 
emplaced. 



4-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





35 
















































8 
















































35 


















PC 


•sit 


on 


Ar 


ea 






















4 


























( 


Rec 


D 


















35 


















^ 


lCM 


7 ) 






1 


/2 




\ 


AOF) 

































/ 




Ul 


ii 


_l 


1/1 




\ 












34 




















\ 


/ 














\ 












6 


















































34 














K 1 






/ 










/\ 


L# 






/ 












2 










in 


2 1 








/ 


\ 






l1> 


) 


it 




/ 












33 










i 


1/3 
















I1A 

I 




l_ 




/ 












8 






a 


inf 


:) 












■ 


) 


> 


I 




















3 3 




























(B 


lac 


k) 
















J3 4 
















































3 3 

































































































32_, 
















































6T 


2 o 


4 


\ 


4 


\ 


4 


% 


4 


\ 


4 


4 o 


4 


4 4 


4 


4 8 


4 


^ 


4 


^6 


4 


6 o 


4 


6 4 








Black Tic Mark = Current Location Red = Past Location Blue = Future Position 

Black changes to Red once howitzers move. Blue changes to Black once howitzers arrive 









Figure 4-5. Example Howitzer Tracking Chart (Centralized Control) 

TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL FIRE DIRECTION 

4-17. The POC performs tactical/technical fire direction for fire missions 
assigned by the battalion to the platoon. This tactical fire direction includes 
howitzer selection for missions that do not require the entire platoon; for 
example, smoke, illumination, and precision registration missions. The FDO 
and FDC chief retain responsibility for tactical/technical fire direction while 
the platoon leader and his designated representative monitor the tactical 
situation. While tactical fire direction is primarily accomplished at the DS 
battalion CP, the POC should ensure that the fire orders received from the 
battalion are executed properly. 

4-18. Technical fire direction during normal operations is accomplished by 
the AFCS at each individual howitzer. The leaders at the POC quickly review 
each mission as it is received to ensure that it is safe to fire and does not 
violate maneuver boundaries, restrictive FSCMs, or intervening crests. After 
these checks are conducted, the mission is transmitted to the howitzers for 
processing of individual firing data by the howitzer's on-board computer. This 
procedure may be modified to accommodate special circumstances. As an 



4-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



example, precision registration missions are computed and controlled by the 
LCU atthePOC. 

DIRECT CONTROL BYTHE POC 

4-19. During some types of degraded howitzer operations, the POC may 
assume direct control of technical fire direction and send firing data to the 
howitzer as in a M109A5 unit. For example, if the AFCS of an individual 
howitzer section is degraded or inoperative, the POC may compute technical 
firing data for that section. (Note: The preferred method requires an 
operational howitzer to locate next to the degraded howitzer, and the 
degraded howitzer uses the operational howitzer's firing data.) Degraded 
operations TTP are discussed in detail in Appendix A. 

4-20. In those cases when the POC is providing technical data down to one or 
more howitzers, secondary checks by independent means must be used. The 
secondary independent check for the LCU computing data for the degraded 
howitzer(s) will be by verifying howitzer location (i.e., GSG, platoon sergeant, 
platoon leader) and target location (i.e., fire support team, battalion FDC, 
POC). Once data is verified and correctly input into the LCU and no major 
database change has occurred, then data is good. Safety will be applied to the 
degraded howitzer the same as on operational howitzers. 

POC CONTROL OF ALL BATTERY HOWITZERS 

4-21. In addition to the functions listed above, each Paladin POC must be 
prepared to control all six of the battery's Paladins simultaneously. POCs 
must develop charts and procedures that let them C2 the entire battery. The 
battery commander may designate one of the POCs as the BOC. The 
functions of the BOC are outlined in FM 6-50, Chapter 1. To achieve mission 
requirements, the BC may augment the BOC with personnel from the battery 
headquarters. 



Situation Map 



4-22. The situation map is one of the most important tools in the POC to 
track operations. It should consist of the following overlays: 

• Maneuver graphics for the force being supported. Friendly and enemy 
unit locations, FLOTs, and observer locations. (The battalion operations 
and intelligence (O&l) section should provide this information. The FDO 
must be proactive in ensuring that the information is current.) 

• Platoon/battery operations overlay. This overlay includes the current PA 
of both platoons in the battery. 

• Anticipated future PAs and the locations of the battery headquarters, the 
other battery POC, and the battery trains should also be posted. All of 
this information usually should not be posted on a single overlay. It may 
be necessary to use separate overlays, one for current and anticipated 
platoon PAs and one for battery trains and headquarters locations. 

• Survey control information. 



4-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



FIRE DIRECTION 

4-23. The following paragraphs address those fire direction operational 
capabilities unique to the LCU and AFCS. Specific "how to" fire direction 
procedures are addressed in Appendix B. 

HOWITZER STATUS REPORT 

4-24. Each howitzer is managed as an individual firing unit and is, therefore, 
required to report its operational status in the same manner as the POC 
reports the status of the platoon to the battalion TOC. In reporting the 
howitzer's operational status, the following information is transmitted 
digitally to the POC: 

• Specific location, AOF, maximum tube elevation, and powder 
temperature. 

• Mask data. 

• Ammunition on hand. 

• MV information. 

DATA TRANSMITTED TO HOWITZERS 

4-25. The POC manually transmits the following via FM digital to each 
howitzer: 

• M ovement order. 

• Ammunition information. 

• MV information. 

• Initialization data. 

• Met data. 

NOTE: The AFCS can digitally request all of the above information at any 
time. Howitzer subscriber information and met data cannot be requested 
from the howitzer. 

Meteorological Data 

4-26. When a computer met (MET;CM) is received at the POC from the 
battalion FDC or the meteorological measuring system (MMS), it is placed in 
the input queue of the LCU for operator review. Once validated, the message 
is executed. This process updates the met file as specified in the MET TO 
UPDATE field of the SYSTEM SETUP message. Once MET IN USE is 
updated, if AUTO XMIT DATABASE messages is NO, the MET;CM message 
is automatically generated and placed in the input queue for transmission to 
the Paladin. If AUTO XMIT DATABASE messages is YES the MET;CM 
message will be sent directly to the howitzer. This MET;CM message 
contains a total of 32 lines of met data. The first message contains lines 00 
through 15, and the second contains lines 16 through 31. The met file is 
automatically updated after the AFCS has received both messages. The LCU 
operator must ensure that the message is acknowledged by all of the 
platoon's howitzers. Note: The met must have a "9" in the OCTANT field or 
the Paladin will not accept it. If both messages (pages) of the met are not 
acknowledged by the AFCS, the AFCS will not use the new met. 



4-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



4-27. Once the met data are successfully updated in the POC and at the 
Paladin, previous met data must be deleted from the LCU database. Using 
the SYSTEM SETUP message, enter the previous MET IN USE value in the 
MET TO DELETE field and execute the message. No transmission to the 
Paladins is required. 



AFCS CAPABILITIES 



4-28. The AFCS has unique capabilities that give the POC great flexibility. 
These capabilities are discussed below. 

• Each AFCS can store nine targets and one priority target. These targets 
may be planned targets, FPF, Copperhead priority targets, TOT missions, 
or any type of target deemed necessary by the POC. 

• The priority mission buffer allows each howitzer to store one final 
protective fire (FPF) or one priority Copperhead mission. The POC 
designates priority missions. 

• Each AFCS has a single active target buffer for mission processing. 

• It is possible for the POC to link a TA asset or "sensor" with a single or 
multiple howitzers " shooter". (Note: There is a loss of tactical control by 
the POC when this is done.) The sensor may be a hand-held terminal unit 
(HTU), forward entry device (FED), a Firefinder radar (AN/TPQ-36 or Q- 
37), or the airborne target handover system (ATHS) aboard an OH-58D. 
For Copperhead missions, a single howitzer may be linked to the 
observer's HTU or FED. Additionally, the POC may allow a TA system 
the capability to access stored targets, adjust fires, and fire for effect 
(FFE) with a single howitzer. The "sensor-to-shooter" or "linked observer" 
mode is a special situation used only at the specific direction of the 
FSCOORD. 



MISSION PROCESSING 

CAPABILITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 



4-29. The capabilities of the Paladin howitzer do not change the basic 
procedures for fire mission processing. However, they do change the location 
at which technical firing data are computed. Because the M109A6 has the 
capability to compute technical firing data, the POC assumes the role of 
providing tactical fire direction. After making whatever tactical fire direction 
decisions are necessary to meet the requirements, the POC transmits the fire 
order digitally to each howitzer for the computation of technical firing data. 
This is the normal method of processing calls for adjust fire and f i re-for-effect 
missions. However, the POC is responsible for the computation of firing data 
for special missions. 



REGISTRATIONS 



4-30. The AFCS is capable of computing a ballistic solution, however, it 
cannot generate an AFU-REG message and the POC is not capable of 
requesting the AFU-REG. Therefore, all registrations (precision, radar, high- 
burst (HB), or mean point of impact (MPI)) are processed by the POC. When 
conducting a registration, the POC should direct the registering howitzer to 
emplace spades thereby minimizing displacement. 



4-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



SPECIAL MISSIONS 

4-31. The following special missions require specific input of data or unique 
handling by thePOC before transmission to the howitzers: 

• All illumination missions except one gun illumination. 

• Destruction missions. 

• SCATMINE. 

• "Sensor-to-shooter" and emergency observer mission. 

• Laser draw. Note: Laser draw is the procedure used to have aim points 
identified within an irregularly shaped target and transmitted to the 
LCU. TheLCU then computes firing data to each aimpoint. 

BATTALION UNIT OF FIRE 

4-32. The unit of fire at battalion FDC is a three-gun platoon; however, it 
must be remembered that firing unit data at the battalion FDC reflects an 
average of three gun locations and azimuths of fire for all guns in a platoon. 

ARTILLERY TECHNICAL REHEARSALS 

4-33. FA technical rehearsals are critical to the success of the FA battalion. 
The technical rehearsal should include all elements in the FS chain down to 
the howitzer. The technical rehearsal allows the FA battalion to practice and 
verify the technical execution of EFATs. All elements in the chain must 
understand their EFATs and the commander's intent. For further 
explanation, refer to FM 6-20-1. 

POC OCCUPATION PROCEDURES 

4-34. Step 1: Find a suitable location (if not already done). Questions to ask 
are: 

• Will I have good communication? 

• Will I be concealed? 

• Am I off high-speed avenues of approach? 

• I s there an escape route? 

Note: If the platoon is enroute to a position and the howitzers occupy, the 
POC should emplace and establish a firing capability. After the platoon is 
RTF, the POC can move as necessary to improve its location. 

4-35. Step 2: Ensure voice and digital communications with battalion FDC 
and howitzers are established. 

4-36. Step 3: Receive piece status (HOW;UPDATE) from howitzers and verify 
AOF. 

4-37. Step 4: Verify database. If database information changes occur, the 
POC will direct a verification mission (i.e., check/change MVVs, registrations, 
ammunition, and met). At thistime, the firing unit is RTF. 



4-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



POC POST-OCCUPATION IMPROVEMENT 

4-38. Once the occupation is completed and the unit is ready to answer calls 
for fire, sustaining actions begin. Refer to FM 6-50, Chapter 2 for post 
occupation sustaining actions. 



4-13 



Chapter 5 

Communications 

The Paladin's ability to provide highly responsive fires and effects is 
dependent on reliable, flexible, secure, responsive, and long-range 
communications. The introduction of radios on-board the howitzer and 
FAASV offers tremendous flexibility over wire-based gunlines. 

BATTALION COMMUNICATIONS 

5-1. The communications systems and procedures at the M109A6 battalion 
level do not differ significantly from those in other M109A5 battalions. FM 6- 
20-1 outlines communications procedures and nets any cannon battalion uses 
as it executes its mission of providing fire support to the maneuver force. In a 
Paladin battalion however, greater emphasis is placed on the use of radio 
systems at the battery level and below. 

BATTERY COMMUNICATIONS 

5-2. The increased number of radios, along with a reduction in personnel and 
equipment available to install and service wire, requires changes in the 
traditional way the communications section, as well as the battery as a 
whole, approaches its mission. The dispersion of communications assets 
within the unit increases the need for mobility and map reading skills among 
the members of the communications section. If wire is used, especially if the 
battery wishes or is directed to enter the mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) 
system, the BC must plan and coordinate with the battalion signal officer for 
whatever external support is required. If a unit's modified table of 
organization and equipment does not provide for a 31U (radio repairer), the 
battalion SOP must address the shortage and provide a solution. 

RADIO NETS 

5-3. The firing battery normally operates on three secure external radio nets: 

• Battalion command net (very high frequency (VHF)-frequency modulated 
(FM)-voice(V)). 

• Oneof three battalion firedirection (FD) nets (VHF-FM-digital (D)). 

• Battalion A/L net (VHF-FM-V). 

5-4. The battery also operates five secure internal radio nets: 

• Battery command (VHF-FM-V). 

• Platoon command (VHF-FM-V) X 2. 

• Platoon FD (VHF-FM-D) X 2. Each platoon operates on its own assigned 
F D net to faci I itate automated C2. 

Battery Command Net (VHF-FM-V) 



5-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



5-5. This net enables battery personnel to pass operational and admin/log 
traffic. The battery commander may designate full time subscribers for this 
net. 

Platoon Command Net (VHF-FM-V) 

5-6. This net enables platoon personnel to pass operational and admin/log 
traffic. Only mission essential traffic should be passed on this net. The POC 
operates as the net control station (NCS). Failure to practice net discipline 
diminishes the effectiveness of the battery's command and control. 

Platoon Fire Direction Net (VHF-FM-D) 

5-7. This net enables each POC (BCS) to communicate digitally with its 
howitzers. As a matter of SOP, the net frequency and BCS address of the 
alternate POC should be provided to each COS with instructions to establish 
digital communications with his alternate POC if his primary POC becomes 
inoperative or mutual support is required. The operational POC acts as the 
NCS in this situation. Howitzer section chiefs must avoid masking their radio 
communications with terrain features or man-made objects as they select 
firing positions or make survivability moves. 

RADIO NET STRUCTURE 

5-8. Figure 5-1 illustrates the radio net structure and SINCGARS equipment 
for a firing battery in a Paladin battalion. Table 5-1 provides an example 
Paladin firing battery combat net radio matrix. 



5-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 




Platoon Command (V) 






First Sergeant 



VRC-90 
latoon Le 




P!M9.9.ffl..E.D ...(P.I.. 



VRC-90 
Platoon Leader 



Platoon Operations Center 

BN FD (D) 



VRC-90 
Platoon Sergeant 



VRC-S9 
VRC-92 



. _B_N Co mm an d £V) i 



Battery Commander 
Battery 
Command (V) 



VRC-8S 
Gunnery Sergeant 



BN Command (V) j 



VRC-92 



Battalion FDC 



2 each VRC-90 
2 each VRC-92 



Battalion O &I 



2 each VRC-90 
VRC-92 
VRC-S9 



Figure 5-1. Paladin Battery Combat Net Radio (CNR) Structure 
Table 5-1. Example Paladin Battery CNR Matrix 



FIRING BATTERY CNR 
MATRIX 


BC 


1SG 


PLT 
LDR 


PLT 
SGT 


POC 


HOW 


FAASV 


GSG 


EXTERNAL NETS: 


















BN COMMAND (V) 


X 


A 


A 


A 


A 






A 


COMMAND FIRE (V) 










X 








BN FD 1/2/3 (D) 










X 








BN A/L (V) 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 








FORCE FA SURVEY (V) 


A 




A 


A 








A 


INTERNAL NETS: 


















BATTERY COMMAND (V) 


A 


A 


A 


A 


A 






A 


PLATOON FD (D) 










X 


X 






PLATOON COMMAND (V) 


A 


A 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


LEGEND: X =FULL Tl ME SUBSCRI BER D =DIGITAL V =VOICE 
A =AS REQUIRED 



5-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 
SETTINGS AND RANGES 



5-9. Power output and planning ranges for SI NCGARS are shown in Table 5- 
2. 

Table 5-2. SINCGARS Power Output and Range 



Power Output 


Range 


Low 


300 meters 


Medium 


.3 to 4 km 


High - Manpack 


8 km (voice) 
4 km (digital) 


High -Vehicular 


8 km (voice) 
8 km (digital) 


Power Amplifier 


35 km (voice) 
20 km (digital) 



MINIMUM COMMUNICATION POWER LEVELS 

5-10. The electronic warfare (E W) threat must always be taken into account. 
Each element of the battery must operate on the minimum power needed to 
com m u n i cate effect i vel y 

COMMUNICATIONS PARAMETERS 

5-11. Before communicating digitally, personnel must make various software 
settings in the AFCS and LCU. Many of these settings should be part of the 
unitTSOP. 

NET ACCESS DELAYTIME 

5-12. The values set for this function allows each howitzer access to the 
battery internal FD net. When the LCU transmits data to all howitzers, it is 
a single broadcast message. If the net access delay time were the same for all 
howitzers, each would be competing for the same space in time to return an 
acknowledgment to the LCU. If this were to happen, no AFCS would be able 
to access the net. By staggering the time for net access, each AFCS has its 
own space in time to respond to LCU messages. 

Communications Sequencing 

5-16. Table 5-3 provides an example of communications sequencing used to 
manage the platoon FD digital net (referred to as net access delay time) in 
order to maintain communications between the POC and the howitzers' 
AFCS. 



5-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table 5-3. Net Access Delay Times (POC Only) 



Howitzer Logical Number (1 st Platoon) 
N et Access D el ay T i me 


1/1 
1.0 


2/1 
1.5 


3/1 
2.0 


Howitzer Logical Number (2 nd Platoon) 
Net Access Delay Time 


1/2 
1.0 


2/2 
1.5 


3/2 
2.0 


Note: The net access delay is the same for each platoon as long as each POC 
is controlling their own guns. If one POC is controlling all six howitzers, then 
the delay times for those additional howitzers would be as follows: 2.5, 3.0, 
3.5 (these are also used as the backup access delay times if POC changeovers 
occur). 1 n the event the battery acquires additional howitzers, then delay 
times would need to be modified accordingly. 


1st & 2 nd Platoon BCS Net Access Delay 


.5 


Note: The BCS has a smaller net access delay time and therefore has the 
highest priority on the net. 



GUN KEYTIME 



5-13. Gun key time is a software setting in the AFCS which allows the radio 
to key up to full power before digital traffic is transmitted. 



BROADCAST ADDRESS 



5-14. The LCU can transmit to all howitzers with a single transmission. Each 
howitzer must have the same address as found in theSYS;SBT. This address 
is valid only for the LCU. Any attempt to use it otherwise causes an error at 
the LCU, or the AFCS responds with an unable to execute (UTE) message. 



PHYSICAL ADDRESS 



5-15. This address is used when linking a single howitzer with a TA asset 
capable of digital communications (i.e., HTU, FED, OH-58D, or radar). This 
address must be different for each howitzer if more than one howitzer is 
going to be linked. (Note: AFCS will not allow duplication of the physical 
address.) 



COMMUNICATIONS PARAMETERS CARD 



5-17. Shown below (Figures 5-2 and 5-3) are examples of the communications 
parameter card used to establish both voice and digital communications 
between the POC and the howitzers during initialization, as well as provide 
them with backup information in the event that the primary BCS becomes 
inoperable. This information is included in the unit SOPs and is given to the 
howitzers prior to starting operations. 



5-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



NET ACCESS 




NET ADDRESS 


NET TYPE: 


14 


GUN PLTN/SECT: 


2/3 


NET ACCESS DELAY TIME (SEC): 


1.0 


BROADCAST ADRS: 


B 


GUN KEY TIME (SEC): 


1.4 


PHYSICAL ADRS: 


Z 


BLOCK MODE SELECTION: 


SINGLE 


PRIMARY BCSADRS: 


A 


NET BUSY SENSE OVERRIDE: 


OFF 


BACKUP BCSADRS 
AFCS URN: 


C 
16245010 


*NETWORK PROTOCOL: 


AFCS 


*BAUD RATE: 


1200 


PRIMARY BCSURN: 


12345678 


*MODULATION: 


1200-2400 


BACKUP BCSURN: 


143 


*WIRE-RADIOLINK: 


RADIO 


CONTROLLING BCS: 


PRIMARY 


HOWITZER CALL SIGN: 
POCCALL SIGN: 
BACKUP POCCALL SIGN: 
BACKUP NET ACCESS DELAY 
TIME (SEC): 


PAPA 10 
PAPA 13 
PAPA 20 

3.5 


DIGITAL NET: 
VOICE NET: 
BACKUP DIGITAL NET: 
BACKUP VOICE NET: 
DATUM: 












LEGEND: SEC =SECOND PLTN 


= PLATOON 


SECT=SECTION ADRS 


=ADDRESS 


URN =UNIT REFERENCE NUMBER 


* =OPERATOR PROTECTED FIELD 



Figure 5-2. Example Communications Parameter Card (AFCS Protocol) 



NET ACCESS 


NET ADDRESS 


NET TYPE: 


31 


GUN PLTN/SECT: 


1/1 






AFCS URN: 


12123234 






PRIMARY BCSURN: 


8123215 






BACKUP BCSURN: 


123 






AFCS IP: 
PRIMARY BCS IP: 


127. 0. 1. 10 
127. 0. 2. 20 


NETWORK PROTOCOL: 


188-220A 


BAUD RATE: 


16000 


BACKUP BCS IP: 


127. 0. 3. 30 


MODULATION: 


NRZ 


CONTROLLING BCS: 


PRIMARY 


WIRE RADIO LINK: 


RADIO 






HOWITZER CALL SIGN: 
POCCALL SIGN: 
BACKUP POCCALL SIGN: 


PAPA 10 
PAPA 13 
PAPA 20 


DIGITAL NET: 
VOICE NET: 
BACKUP DIGITAL NET: 
BACKUP VOICE NET: 
DATUM: 












LEGEND: SEC =SECOND 


IP =INTERNETP 


ROTOCOL PLTN 


= PLATOON 


SECT =SECTION 


URN =UNITREFE 


ERENCE NUMBER 




* =OPERATOR PROTECTED FIELD 







Figure 5-3. Example Communications Parameter Card (188-220A Protocol) 



5-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



BATTERY WIRE SYSTEM 

WIRE COMMUNICATIONS 



5-18. Use of wire in a Paladin battery is usually limited to those periods when 
a howitzer's radio communication is degraded and it must connect with 
another howitzer, FAASV, or the POC in order to continue operating or when 
radio listening silence is imposed by the higher headquarters. Connecting by 
wire to another howitzer or a FAASV allows voice intercom communications 
(ANA/I S-3). Connecting to the POC provides both voice and digital 
communications (if two wire lines are laid). Priority in establishing 
communications is digital followed by voice. 

SINGULAR DATA LINK 

5-19. Only one method may be used to establish the digital link over land 
line. For each howitzer, this is done by connecting one end of the DR-8 wire to 
the howitzer digital binding post and the other end to the POC LCU wireline 
adapter binding post. The limitations associated with this method are the 
amount of available wire and the time it takes to install, maintain, and 
recover the wireline. Wire cannot be hot looped. 

ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATIONS 

5-20. If radio listening silence is imposed, an alternate means of 
communications (such as wire, messenger, or signals) must be used. Given 
the constraints on wire, personnel, visibility, mission, time, and the 
requirement to maintain digital communications between the guns and the 
POC, the procedures below should be considered when developing the unit 
TSOP: 

• If required, move howitzers to within 1/4 mile (or less) of the POC or 
platoon terminal board (TM-184) and use DR-8 wire lines. 

• Establish a battery wirehead as a connection point for the POCs. 

• Consider use of wire line adapter (HYX-57/TSEC for wire line security 
and remoting. 

• Mark lines or provide line route maps for wire repair or recovery 
operations, if they are used. 

• Use other available means (messenger, visual signals) to facilitate 
communication needs. 

• Establish communications with adjacent units, left to right or higher to 
lower, as applicable. 



5-7 



Chapter 6 

Unit Defense 

The techniques and procedures employed by the Paladin unit to establish 
the defense are similar to those in FM 6-50, Chapter 3. The Paladin is 
extremely flexible and allows for many employment options to optimize 
its defense. A detailed threat and terrain analysis will dictate how 
commanders wi 1 1 empl oy Pal adi n to ensure its survi vabi I i ty. 



RESPONSIBILITIES OF KEY PERSONNEL 

6-1. Leaders create a defensive plan that is flexible enough to accommodate 
the movement and dispersion of howitzers within a PA. The BC and platoon 
leaders identify the critical elements of the defense and convey that 
information to subordinates. Key terrain features, high-speed avenues of 
approach, and danger areas must be known and understood to develop an 
effective defense. 

6-2. The GSG works with the BC during RSOP to initiate and develop the 
defense plan. The GSG sketches the plan on the firing area map/defensive 
diagram. When the unit arrives in a new position, the platoon sergeant and 
platoon leader refine the plan. The section chief executes the plan and 
provides feedback to the platoon sergeant. 

BATTERY COMMANDER 

• Responsible for the overall defense of the battery. 

• Responsible for identifying the primary threat to the battery and possible 
enemy avenues of approach. 

• Responsible for coordinating mutual supporting defense with adjacent 
units. 

• Responsible for relaying any change to the tactical situation which may 
affect the battery. 

• Based on threat capabilities or limitations and time available, identify 
possible areas in unit defense to accept/assume risk in order to ensure 
mission accomplishment. 

• Establish priority of work for defense. 



FIRST SERGEANT 



Responsible for the overall execution of the battery defense. 

Integrates platoon defensive plans into an overall battery defensive plan 

and forwards to battalion. 

Responsible for organizing and positioning the defense for the battery 

support (trains) elements. 



6-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PLATOON LEADER 

• Responsible for the overall defense of the platoon. 

• Coordinates with the platoon sergeant on thedefensive plan I AW FM 6- 
50, Chapter 3. 

PLATOON SERGEANT 

• Responsible for the development of the platoon defensive plan IAW FM 6- 
50, Chapter 3. 

GUNNERY SERGEANT 

• Initiates firing area defense diagram (FADD) during RSOP. 

• Identifies potential TRPs and enemy avenues of approach in conjunction 
with the battery commander. 

• Establishes initial security of firing area as required. 

SECTION CHIEF 

• Executes the platoon defensive plan. 

• Monitors assigned sectors. 

• Develops section defensive plan IAW guidance/TSOPs. 

AMMUNITION TEAM CHIEF 

• Executes the platoon/section defensive plan. 

• Monitors assigned sectors. 

CONDUCT OF THE DEFENSE 
DEFENSE AGAINST COUNTERFIRE 

6-3. The best defense in a high counterfire threat environment is for Paladin 
howitzers to execute survivability moves after firing and maximize dispersion 
between sections. 

DEFENSE AGAINST AIR ATTACK 

6-4. Concealment without movement is the best defense in a high air threat 
environment. If Paladin is detected and attacked, the key to survival is 
dispersion and engaging attacking aircraft with a large volume of fire. 
Immediate actions against air attack include using organic direct fire 
weapons (or air defense assets if attached) to return fire. 

DEFENSE AGAINST ARMORED OR MECHANIZED ATTACK 

6-5. The best defense against an armored or mechanized ground attack is for 
the Paladin unit to move to a position from which it can continue the mission 
without a direct confrontation with the enemy. The section chief moves out of 
the danger area, notifies the POC, and continues the mission. However in 
some circumstances fighting an enemy force may be unavoidable. The unit 
TSOP should address immediate action drills to include direct fire 
engagement criteria. 



6-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



DEFENSE AGAINST DISMOUNTED ATTACK 



6-6. The best defense against a ground threat is avoiding detection through 
concealment. When the counterfire threat is low, protection from ground 
attack is enhanced with the establishment of pair, platoon or battery 
defensive positions. An additional defensive measure against a ground attack 
is for the Paladin unit to displace to an alternate position. 



DEFENSIVE CONCEALMENT 



6-7. The Paladin's best defense is to avoid enemy detection. Firing positions 
should be selected that allow the howitzer sections the maximum ability to 
hide while continuing to operate. Tree lines, the bed or valley of a stream, 
and built-up areas provide excellent means of concealment. When the battle 
becomes static, camouflage discipline should be rigorously enforced and 
camouflage nets may be used to effectively conceal the unit. 



AVAILABLE DEFENSIVE WEAPONS 



6-8. A formidable defense calls for sound tactics and the proper employment 
of the unit's organic weapons. Defensive weapons available to the Paladin 
battery include direct fire by the howitzers (see TM 9-2350-314-10, Chapter 
2), .50 caliber machine guns, M60 machine guns, MK 19 grenade launchers, 
M18-series mines, light antitank weapons, and 5.56-mm rifles. Artillery fires 
are a key element of battery's defensive planning. The BC coordinates his 
defensive plan through the battalion S3. Mutual defensive support with 
adjacent friendly units is coordinated face to face by the commander or NCO 
in charge (NCOIC) with the nearby unit. 



TSOP RESPONSIBILITIES 



6-9. Unit TSOPs and checklists are important tools in the development and 
execution of a strong defense. Figure 6-1 provides an example checklist for 
the development of an effective battery defense. 

6-10. The BC must ensure that battery TSOPs address all aspects of unit 
operations, to include procedures for dealing with NBC attacks. TSOPs 
should cover protective measures, immediate action, decontamination, and 
reporting. Guidance for the commander is in FM 3-100, NBC Operations. 



6-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-HOUR 


ACTIONS 


COMPLETE 




Accurate R SOP 

Prepare Positions/Pickup Point 

Assign Sectors of Fire/Establish Timeline 

Coordinate with POC for HOW;UPDATE 

Test/Emplace M -8 Alarms 

Complete Range Cards 

Assign Time Line/Priority of Work 

Complete Position Map/Defense Diagram 

Clear Fields of Fire 

Camouflage Vehicles 

Hasty Fighting Positions/Rollover Pits 

Mass Casualty Plan Established 

Communications to All Perimeter Positions 

Ammunition Redistributed As Needed 

Defense Diagram to Battalion 

Wire Staked and Buried 

Sleep Plan Established 

PMCSCompleted/2404s Turned In 

Rehearse Reaction Plan, NBC Teams, Casualty 

Evacuation and Crater Analysis Teams 
Test/Reposition NBC Equipment 
Reconnoiter Route to Aid Station 
All Mines(M18Al) Emplaced 
Fighting Positions Completed/Camouflaged 
Inspect/Preposition MOPP Gear 
Update Unit on Tactical Situation as Necessary 
Personal/Crew Served Weapons Cleaned 
Rehearse Direct Fire/Tank Killer Teams 
Technical Rehearsal of Fire Plan 
Establish Rally Points 





Figure 6-1. Example of Defensive Checklist 

DEFENSIVE METHODS 

DEFENSE WHILE MOVING AND IN POSITION 

6-11. Employing one of the following three methods during operations 
enhances Paladin defense: 

• Clock method. 

• TRP method. 

• Static method. 

6-12. The clock method is recommended while moving and upon occupations. 
Vehicles are assigned sectors of fire in relation to a clock, with 1200 hours 
(hrs) as the direction of travel while moving and 1200 hrs along the azimuth 
of fire during and after occupations. Adopting the standardized clock method 
provides the means to assign areas of responsibility to gun sections and 
facilitates rapid occupation and emplacement of security. Further, this 



6-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



method enhances the section's ability to move and quickly refocus its primary 
and secondary weapon systems on assigned areas of responsibility. This has 
been referred to as a "floating" or "flexible" defense. The clock method may be 
employed while moving in various formations and upon initial occupation 
until a suitableTRP method can be established. 

6-13. After the completion of occupation, the platoon senior COS/platoon 
sergeant/GSG executes the TRP method by replacing "clock" sectors of fire 
with identifiableTRP sectors of fire ensuring all sectors interlock. Figures 6-2 
and 6-3 depict examples of a platoon defensive diagram during 
mated/separated operations and during overwatch operations using TRPs. 

6-14. Static defense is an improvement on the TRP method during periods of 
less frequent movement (i.e., low threat of counterfire). Sections maximize 
cover/concealment and improve their positions to include individual fighting 
positions and survivability positions. Units position listening 
posts/observation posts (LPs/OPs) to provide early warning and limited 
security. Static defense includes but is not limited to the techniques described 
in FM 6-50, Chapter 3. 

6-15. During all three methods, units designate known rally points 
before/during movement and when emplaced to facilitate defensive 
operations upon attack. 



6-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



i 

+ 



FAASV with 
Machine Gun 



Target Reference 
Point (TRP) 



CENTER GRID _ 
DATE 



AZIMUTH OF FIRE _ 

UNIT 




A TRP 4 



TRP# 


Shell 


CHG 


FZ 


TI 


DF 


QE 


RG 


Description 


Grid/ALT 







































































































Figure 6-2. Example Defensive Diagram-Mated/Separated 



6-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



i 

+ 



FAASV with 
Machine Gun 



Target Reference 
Point (TRP) 



CENTER GRID . 
DATE 



AZIMUTH OF FIRE . 

UNrr 




TRP# 


Shell 


CHG 


FZ 


TI 


DF 


QE 


RG 


Description 


Grid/ALT 







































































































Figure 6-3. Example Defensive Diagram-Overwatch 



BATTERY AND PLATOON DEFENSE 



Advantages 



6-16. Battery and platoon level defensive operations are effective when the 
ground threat is greater than the counterfire threat. Conventional battery 
and platoon defensive operations differ littlefrom those described in FM 6-50, 
Chapter 3 and FM 6-20-1. Consolidating the howitzers into a battery or 
platoon formation increases the unit's defensive capability against ground 
attack. Battery trains and POCs may be collocated with the firing elements 
to provide additional security particularly at night. Survivability moves are 
driven by the tactical situation. 



Security within the battery is maximized. 

Available firepower for defense against ground and air attack is 

increased. 

C2, supply distribution, feeding, and sleep rotations are easier to manage 

in platoon and battery-level operations. 

Wire communications, if used, reduce radio signatures in the platoon and 

battery area. 



6-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Disadvantages 



Easier to locate. 

Provides larger target array for threat forces. 

More vulnerabletocounterfire. 



PAIRED HOWITZERS 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



6-17. This mode enhances howitzer section defense, especially during 
degraded operations and hours of limited visibility. The Paladins and their 
FAASVs provide mutual security through interlocking fires with crew-served 
weapons. Paired howitzers coordinate survivability moves with each other to 
ensure continued mutual defense. FAASVs assist in the security of the entire 
position, regardless if they are used in the paired configuration or in the 
overwatch position. 



• Complicates enemy's targeting and attack decision process 

• Firing areas are better protected against ground and air attack over 
single howitzers. 

• The increased number of soldiers in the area reduces the psychological 
factors of isolation compared to single howitzer operations. 



• More difficult to C2 and resupply over platoon operations. 

• More vulnerableto ground attack over battery and platoon defense. 



SINGLE HOWITZERS 



6-18. This mode of operation is least preferred. However, it is very effective 
when the counterfire or air threat is much greater than the ground threat. 
Defense against ground threat suffers because of crew and firepower 
limitations. Mission and crew rest requirements make it difficult to provide 
LPsandOPs. 

6-19. The dispersion and isolation of single howitzer operations place the 
immediate responsibility of making defensive decisions on the section chief. 
To effectively employ this method of operation, the section chief must 
understand the commander's guidance, be skilled in applying the defensive 
procedures in FM 6-50, and be capable of establishing a local defense. He 
must make an initial plan to displace or fight from his position and develop 
the plan with the platoon sergeant. 

6-20. The COS and the ATC work together to establish an effective defense. 
The ATC bears a large responsibility to defend the howitzer, particularly 
when the howitzer is occupying or firing. The COS and ATC must make 
effective use of cover and concealment. Entering a position, they must sweep 
and clear the immediate area, identify danger areas, avenues of approach, 
and an egress to an alternate position or rally point. BCs must maximize 
coordination with adjacent and surrounding units when employing single 
howitzers. 



6-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

ADVANTAGES 

• Less vulnerable to counterfi re. 

• The smaller signature makes detection of individual howitzer difficult. 

DISADVANTAGES 

• Most difficult to C2. 

• Does not provide for mutual support against ground threats. 



6-9 



Appendix A 

Degraded Operations 

This appendix presents guidelines and actions to ensure Paladin firing 
capability should theLCU at the POC fail to function or communicate, or 
should various elements of the Paladin system fail during combat 
operati ons. 

DEGRADED PLATOON OPERATIONS CENTER 

PROCEDURES FOR DEGRADED POC OPERATIONS 

A-l. The POC is the "brain" of the Paladin platoon. If the LCU becomes 
inoperative, that POC can no longer control the fires of the platoon. If the 
digital communications system fails, the AFCS cannot receive and compute 
fire missions, and firing data must be externally supplied. Table A-l outlines 
procedures to be followed if POC operations become degraded. 



A-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table A-1. Degraded POC Operations 



Failure 


Battle Drill/Options 


Lightweight 
Computer Unit 


Degraded POC: 

- Notify adjacent platoon to assume control of howitzers. 

- Inform the battalion CP of the situation. 

- Inform BC of nature of equipment failure and request necessary 
external support. 

- Repair or replace faulty equipment. 


I mmedi ate Action/Options 


- Notify howitzers to go backup BCS and backup frequency on the net 
address screen. 


Adjacent POC: 

- Display SYS;SBT. Enter Y in theT-field of the degraded platoon 
Paladins, if necessary. 

- Request HOW;UPDATE from each Paladin. 

- Execute upon receipt. 

- Request HOW;AMOUP from each Paladin. 

- Execute upon receipt. 

- Request AFU;MASK from each Paladin. 

- Execute upon receipt. 

- Request BCS;M VV from each Paladin. 

- Request AFU;REG from each Paladin. 

- Execute upon receipt. 

- Conduct verification mission (after this step, the platoon is RTF. 

- Request targets stored at the AFCS of each Paladin. 

- Update/transmit AFU; UPDATE to battalion. 

- Update/transmit AFU; AMMO to battalion. 


Digital 
Communications 


Degraded POC: 

- Keep Paladins in current position or move them into a platoon 
formation. 

- Establish an internal wire system, if feasible. 

- UseLCU to compute technical fire commands. 

- Verify AOF. 

- Send fire commands to Paladins by voice over FM radio or wire. 



A-2. Consideration must be given to FPFs and Copperhead. Only one FPF 
and one Copperhead, or two Copperhead targets may be stored in a LCU. 
Missions with the highest priority should be stored on the Paladins. All other 
missions should be recorded and deleted. 



AFCS COMMAND INPUT 



A-3. The AFCS can only receive fire missions digitally. The COS can only 
input fire commands manually at the AFCS. When digital communications 
with the Paladin are lost for any reason, collocate degraded howitzer within 
30-50 meters of an operational howitzer and use the data computed by the 
operational howitzer. The COS of the degraded howitzer manually inputs the 
data into the AFCS and allows the system to operate normally. 



A-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



BACKUP FIRE DIRECTION CAPABILITY 

A-4. The primary backup technical fire direction capability for the Paladin 
platoon is the LCU from the second POC in the battery. Should both battery 
LCUs become inoperative, the BC may direct several options: 

• Option 1. Platoons may be attached toother batteries of the battalion. 

• Option 2. The POCs manually compute firing data. (The POCs retain the 
plotting board, plotting set, and fire direction set necessary for manual 
operations.) However, the Paladins must set up as a platoon. 

ALTERNATE FIRING MODE 

A-5. If the AFCS or navigation system of a Paladin howitzer becomes non- 
operational, the easiest way to maintain fire capability is to reciprocally lay 
using an operational Paladin. If both systems are down, the non-operational 
howitzer will co-locate and use the firing data from an operational howitzer 
which is located 30-50 meters from the degraded howitzer. The POC may also 
compute firing data. 

DEGRADED SUBSYSTEM BATTLE DRILLS 

A-6. The Paladin is a "system of systems," all of which must be working for 
the M109A6 to achieve its full combat potential. Loss of one or several 
subsystems does not completely negate the overall capability of the Paladin. 
Most subsystem failures can be overcome by working around the faulty 
subsystem with alternate procedures. 



A-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table A-2. Degraded Subsystem Operations 



Failure 


Battle Drill/Options 


Electrical Power 


- Notify POC. 

- Use limited electrical power availablefrom M992A2 FAASV APU. 

- Manually ram projectile. 

- Manually lay using gunner's hand wheels. 

- Note: The APU provides enough power for AFCS operations only. 
APU output is not sufficient for operating the hydraulic system. 


If M 992A2 is not available: 

- Use reciprocal lay, aiming circle, or compass laying techniques. Refer 
to this appendix for reciprocal laying procedures. 

- Use spades. 

- Manually elevate and traverse. 

- Receive firing data from adjacent howitzer. 

- Operate travel lock manually. 

- Use DAP or collimator. 

- Hand ram. 


Digital 
Communications 


-Notify POC. 

- Collocate within 30-50 meters of operational gun and use operational 
gun's data or determine firing data in the POC (this method is slower 
than collocation with an operational gun, but more accurate). 

- Use voice net for fire direction. 

- Manually input data into AFCS. 

- Verify AOF (voice) with POC. 

- Report rounds complete. 


Navigation System 
(DRU-H) 


-Notify POC. 

- If in position use DAP (preferred) or collimator and continue mission 
using manual/optical fire control and move operational howitzer 
within 30-50 meters and use its f i ri ng data. 

- If moving, manually navigate to destination. Use another howitzer to 
provide location and reciprocal lay or use hasty survey and other 
laying techniques, move operational howitzer within 30-50 meters and 
use its firing data. 

- POC provides firing data (this method is slower than the above 
methods, but more accurate). 

-U se spades if needed. 


VMS 


- ZUPTs will be required more often. Howitzer is still fully operational. 


Hydraulic Power 


-Notify POC. 

- Load, traverse, and elevate manually according to the procedures in 

the current -10 series TM . 


Gun Drive Servos 


-Notify POC. 

- Lay with chief of section or gunner's control handle. 

- Lay manually using the gunner's elevating and traversing hand 
wheel. 



A-4 



Table A-2. Degraded Subsystem Operations (continued) 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



AFCS 


- Notify POC. 

- Have operational howitzer collocate within 30-50 meters and fire 
operational gun's data. 

- U se DAP or col 1 i mator. 

- Lay manually using gunner's/section chief's hydraulic control handle 
or hand wheels. 

- Use spades. 

- If moving, navigate manually to destination. Use another howitzer to 
provide location and for reciprocal lay. 


Voice 
Communications 


-Notify POC. 

- Use wire to an adjacent howitzer. 

- Remove radio from FAASV and place in howitzer. 


1 ntercom 


-Notify POC. 

- Remove combat vehicle crewman (CVC) helmets and replace with 
Kevlar helmet. If firing M 119 or M 203 charges, the CVC helmet must 
still be worn with earplugs to ensure overpressure does not damage 
hearing. 

- Do not move howitzer until communications are restored between 
the track commander and the driver. 


Transmission and/or 
Final Drive 


-Notify POC. 

-Tow to subsequent position by using the FAASV. UseAPU to power 

theAFCS. 


Engine 


-Notify POC. 

- Use limited electrical power availablefrom FAASV APU. 

- Continue firing until engine is repaired or replaced. 

- Tow to subsequent position. 



RECIPROCAL LAYING PROCEDURES 

A-7. The procedures for reciprocal laying are somewhat different than those 
for reciprocal laying of previous M109 series howitzers. The turret 
configuration of the M 109A6 requires the howitzer being laid to be positioned 
to the left front of the operational howitzer. Also, location can be transferred 
in addition to direction. The procedures are as follows: 

A-8. The driver positions the degraded howitzer as required and emplaces 
using spades. The M2 compass is used to approximate the azimuth of fire. 
The selected position must allow a second howitzer to pull up along the left 
(driver) side of the howitzer. 

A-9. The driver pulls the operational howitzer alongside the degraded 
howitzer hub to hub, with the left front sprockets parallel and not more than 
1 meter apart as shown in Figure A-l. 



A-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Howitzer with non-operational AFCS: 
Oriented on the azimuth of fire 




Howitzer with operational AFCS: 
Initial Position 



Figure A-1. Hub to Hub Positioning for Location 

A-10. The COS on the operational howitzer reads its location from the AFCS 
and reports that location to the COS on the degraded howitzer. The COS of 
the degraded Paladin records the location and reports it to the POC as his 
location. 

A-ll. Note: Another possibility is to use two PLGRs to determine howitzer 
location. The degraded howitzer has a PLGR on board, so only one additional 
PLGR would be needed. This allows the operational howitzer to obtain firing 
capability before reciprocally laying the degraded howitzer. 

A-12. The driver then moves the operational howitzer to its firing point. This 
point must be clearly visible, to the left of and within a 45-degree cone 
forward of the degraded howitzer as shown in Figure A-2. This limitation is 
due to the limited traverse of the pantel ballistic shield of the Paladin. 



A-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Howitzer with non-operational AFCS: 
Oriented on the azimuth of fire 



CCK=OE 




CCE=Ot 




Howitzer with operational AFCS: 
Firing Position 



Figure A-2. Positioning the Operational Howitzer 

A-13. Once the operational howitzer is in position and laid on the desired 
azimuth of fire, the gunners on both howitzers check the boresight of their 
pantel with the M 140 boresighting device or standard angle method. 

A-14. Using the AFCS, the COS traverses the turret 3200 mils, placing the 
operational howitzer on the back azimuth of fire. This gives the two gunner's 
sights clear fields of view off the left sides of the respective howitzers (Figure 
A-3). 



A-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Howitzer with non-operational AFCS: 




*^i9iq;pirotbrois, 




Howitzer with operational AFCS: 
3200 mils out 



Figure A-3. Laying the Degraded Howitzer 

A-15. The gunner of the operational howitzer sights on the pantel of the 
degraded howitzer. Reading the upper scale, he reports NUMBER (so-and- 
so), DEFLECTION (so much). The COS reports the referred deflection to the 
degraded howitzer by radio (using the battery/platoon command voice net) or 
by voice relay. 

A-16. Note: The operational howitzer is already on the back azimuth of lay. 
The gunner is not required to add or subtract 3200 mils from the referred 
deflection as in conventional reciprocal lay procedures. 

A-17. The gunner of the degraded howitzer sets the reported deflection on the 
upper scale of the pantel, traverses the tube until he sights the pantel of the 
operational howitzer, and reports READY FOR RECHECK. 

A-18. The gunner of the operational howitzer again sights on the pantel of the 
degraded howitzer and reports the referred deflection. The procedure is 
repeated until the degraded howitzer reports ZERO MILS. The azimuth of 
fire for the degraded howitzer is then reported to the POC. 

A-19. Then, as with any howitzer laid by conventional means, aiming points 
for the degraded howitzer are established and recorded I AW FM 6-50. 



A-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



A-20. If the degraded howitzer uses the operational howitzers firing data, the 
operational howitzer must remain within 30-50 meters. 

A-21. 1 ndependent verification of reciprocal lay must be conducted. 



ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE 



A-22. An alternative method to establishing direction is to lay the degraded 
howitzer using conventional methods I AW FM 6-50. 



A-9 



Appendix B 

Automated Command and Control 

The capabilities of the Paladin howitzer have substantially changed the 
role of the POC. The emphasis at the POC shifts from providing technical 
fire direction to tactical fire direction and the C2 of three 
semi autonomous howitzers. The Paladin unit has a number of unique 
capabilities as well as some unique challenges to operate at its fullest 
capacity. Increasing automation means that information flow is 
accelerated and the demand for information, both into and out of the 
POC, is increased. This appendix provides information on AFCS 
capabilities, initialization procedures, and message traffic to assist in 
control ling the automation process. 



COMMANDERS CRITERIA 

B-l. Commander's criteria are the supported maneuver commander's 
guidance for fire support translated into language usable by the battalion 
FDC computer. The FSCOORD, artillery battalion S3, and battalion FDO 
meet and develop commander's criteria for each maneuver mission or phase 
of a mission. The FA support plan or the battalion FDC tab to the FA support 
plan must contain commander's criteria. When AFATDS/IFSAS is controlling 
the battalion fires, this information is automatically part of the tactical fire 
control solution developed by the computer. However, this information must 
also be disseminated to each POC so that the maneuver commander's 
guidance for fire support and attack guidance are adhered to in case battalion 
FDC is not available. The battalion O&l section provides this information, 
and should be regularly queried to ensure this information is passed initially 
and updated as changes in thetactical situation occur. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 

B-2. To C2 the Paladin, it is important that personnel understand what the 
AFCS can and cannot do. It is not a stand-alone device but is an extension of 
the LCU. The howitzer COS cannot receive voice calls for fire and input grid 
coordinates to compute fire missions. The items discussed below are those the 
COS must input into the AFCS and report to the LCU. 



PIECE STATUS 



B-3. The piece status is reported to the POC in the form of the 
HOW;UPDATE report. The actual status in the HOW;UPDATE depends on 
directions given by the POC. The HOW;UPDATE received by LCU contains 
the howitzer grid location and altitude, date and time of arrival at the firing 



B-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



position, operational status, AOF, maximum elevation, and powder 
temperature. Status codes used are as follows: 

• Y = Operational in a fire area. This means the howitzer is given more 
authority within a POC-specified radius. 

• O =Out of action. Determined automatically by theAFCS. 

• M = Moving. Determined automatically by theAFCS. 

• S = Stationary at a firing point. 

• L = L i nked with a TA asset. 

• R = Relay linked with a TA asset. 



AMMUNITION 



B-4. The howitzer ammunition status is reported to the POC by use of the 
HOW;AMOUP report. This information is maintained in the LCU by howitzer 
and is consolidated for AFATDS/IFSAS reporting purposes on the 
AFU;AMMO report. Ammunition reported includes both on-board howitzer 
ammunition and ammunition available on the FAASV if the FAASV is in the 
PA. 



MASK DATA 



B-5. The gunner or section chief traverses the tube, elevating and/or 
depressing to measure site to crest. He then measures piece-crest range by 
using an AN/GVS-5 hand-held laser range finder or one of the methods 
described in FM 6-50, Chapter 6. The mask information is determined for 
each howitzer and is reported to the POC on the AFU;MASK report, where it 
is also maintained by howitzer. Each howitzer can report up to eight masks 
with a maximum of 24 masks stored at the LCU. It is not necessary for each 
howitzer to report eight masks. If the adjacent POC is not available and one 
POC must control six howitzers, the mask data may have to be redefined by 
the howitzer COS as directed by the POC. For example, the COS may be 
directed to report the three highest masks within his primary sector of fire. 

MUZZLE VELOCITY 

B-6. Each howitzer maintains its own MVV data. This information is also 
maintained by howitzer in the LCU database at the POC. The POC can 
request the current MVV data by using the HOW;RE QUEST message format. 
This process is transparent to the Paladin. All calibration data entered into 
the AFCS are corrected for nonstandard conditions (projectile weight and 
propellant temperature) and appear at the POC as variations requiring no 
further processing. (Also refer to Appendix K.) 

MISSION PROCESSING 

B-7. TheAFCS can process only one fire mission at a time. However, a stored 
priority Copperhead or FPF mission can be fired anytime it is requested. The 
AFCS can store up to ten targets, including one priority target. 

B-8. Except for priority targets (FPF or priority Copperhead), the gunner or 
COS can review only stored targets for the purpose of preparing ammunition. 
The AFCS can process fire missions where the LCU has computed the firing 
data (firing data sent by FM;COMMDS message), or it may compute its own 



B-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



data (HOW;MSN sent from LCU). In the normal mode of operation, the AFCS 
computes its own data based on tactical fire control information sent from the 
POC via the LCU. 

B-9. If for any reason the AFCS should be unable to process information 
transmitted from the LCU, the AFCS automatically transmits a "be advised 
that" (BAT) or an "unable to execute" (UTE) plain text message to the LCU. 
The BAT or UTE PTM states the warning or reason for failure to process. 
Section 1 1 lists BAT and UTE messages. 

INITIALIZATION 

B-10. It is imperative that platoon and battery personnel be thoroughly 
briefed on the tactical situation and the role the unit is to play in 
accomplishing the commander's guidance for fire support. This information 
has a direct influence on the operational employment of the Paladin battery 
and its platoons. I nformation critical for howitzer sections is discussed below. 

CALL SIGNS AND FREQUENCIES 

B-ll. Call signs and frequencies to be used by the howitzers must be known. 

SURVEY CONTROL AND LOGISTICS POINTS 

B-12. Location of SCPs and logistic points must be known. 

PRIORITY SHELL-FUZE COMBINATIONS 

B-13. This information is part of commander's criteria found in the FA 
support plan. It aids the howitzer COS in managing ammunition on the 
howitzer and FAASV to best support the operation. 

COMMUNICATIONS PARAMETERS 

B-14. (See Chapter 5 for communications parameters information.) 

DATABASE INFORMATION 

B-15. There are several ways to approach building the database. However, 
digital communications must first be established. Each howitzer and POC 
must input enough initial database information to enable digital 
communications between elements. Each howitzer must notify the POC when 
it is prepared to establish digital communications. 



LCU Database 



B-16. There are two options in constructing a database at the LCU: 

• Build a complete database by selecting the weapon-dependent program 
and receiving all of the information directly from the individual Paladins. 

• Modify an existing database, using database recording (DBR) 
DATABASElor DATABASE2or FLEXIBLE DISC UNIT. 

B-17. Selection of a database previously recorded normally is the option 
selected. Corrections are made and transmitted to the howitzer as needed. As 
a matter of SOP, the AUTO XMIT DATABASE messages should be YES 



B-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



(selected). This allows automatic transmission of the HOW;SBT, MET;CM, 
AFU;REG, and SPRT;MAP anytime the format is executed or a 
HOW;REQUEST is executed. Otherwise, changes to the LCU database are 
placed in the input queue and require operator action for transmission to the 
howitzer(s). The LCU operator should enter all six howitzers (both platoons) 
in the SYS;SBT. These should be the first six entries. The adjacent platoon 
howitzers should have an entry of N in the T field. This eliminates the need 
to enter them in case the POC has to assume control of the adjacent platoon 
howitzers. However, do not enter the adjacent platoon howitzers 
(HOW;UPDATE) and ammunition (HOW;AMOUP) into the database. This 
results in incorrect platoon location and ammunition count reports to 
battalion. 

AFCS Database 

B-18. Each howitzer COS constructs his database on the basis of known data. 
Some of this information is provided by the POC: 

• Net access (See Chapter 5). 

• Net address (See Chapter 5). 

■ Radio frequencies and call signs. 

■ Date and time. 

B-19. The remaining information for the AFCS is available at howitzer level 
(such as ammunition, load elevation, and time on target (TOT) response 
time). At the onset of operations, there may be no more than one or two SCPs 
where the howitzer(s) may initialize the navigation system. (This does not 
preclude other database information from being entered.) The POC may need 
only to tell the COS at which SCP to initialize. It is important to note that 
once the navigation system is initialized, it need not be done again unless a 
catastrophic failure or loss of survey control occurs. 

ESTABLISH THE NET CONTROL STATION (INTRA-PLATOON) 

B-20. Each POC is responsible to establish voice and digital communications 
within its platoon. Strict net discipline is essential because of the increase in 
radios. Unit TSOPs should specify procedures to establish voice and digital 
communications. 

B-21. Voice communications checks should be made first on both voice and 
digital nets. If voice communications cannot be established, then digital 
cannot be established. Once each howitzer has completed initial database 
input, digital communications should be established. The POC should first 
send a time hack, after which the COS should request initialization. The LCU 
receives this as a HOW;RE QUEST, which the LCU operator executes. If 
AUTO XMIT DATABASE messages is YES, then the HOW;SBT, AFU;REG, 
SPRT;MAP and MET;CM automatically transmit. It is important to note that 
this database information is not accessible to the howitzer COS and is 
controlled exclusively by the POC. If the POC is uncertain whether the AFCS 
has this information, it should be retransmitted. There are two reasons for 
transmitting the HOW;SBT before any other message: first, to check digital 
communications from LCU to AFCS: and second, so the howitzer knows its 
fire unit name (as found in BCS SYS;SBT). This keeps the LCU operator from 



B-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



having to correct the fire unit name when a HOW;RE QUEST is received from 
a howitzer. 

B-22. Unlike digital transmissions to other subscribers, the POC, when 
transmitting to howitzers, may transmit to a single gun or make a single 
broadcast transmission to all guns. For example: 

• SB:*/l/2/ / ; Transmission to guns 1 and 2 only. 

• SB:*//// ; Broadcast transmission to all guns. 

• SB:*/1// / ; Transmission to gun 1 only. 

HOWITZER SUBSCRIBER TABLE (HOW;SBT) 

B-23. The HOW;SBT is used to establish legal digital subscribers for each 
howitzer. The controlling POC should enter the backup POC in each 
HOW;SBT. This allows the backup POC to assume control of adjacent 
howitzers should the need arise. 

HOWITZER MOVEMENT (HOW;MOVE) 

HOW;MOVE FORMAT 

B-24. The HOW;MOVE format is used to direct howitzer movement. This 
message gives the howitzer authority to move. When this format is used, it is 
important to understand thetypeof control the POC is granting the howitzer. 
If the POC intends the howitzer to occupy a single firing point, the radius 
given should be zero. If a firing area is desired, thereby allowing the howitzer 
freedom to select its own position, a radius greater than zero is specified. 
Whenever a radius greater than zero is specified, the howitzer is 
automatically granted move authority. In all cases, the POC should enter X 
in REPORT. When the howitzer arrives at the firing position, the AFCS 
automatically reports the arrival to the POC. If the howitzer is directed to a 
firing point (no move authority) and the howitzer moves more than 18 
meters, the AFCS warns the operator and reports the movement to the POC. 
If the POC wants the howitzer to lay on a specific azimuth, the desired 
azimuth is placed in the center sector (CSECT) field. The left sector (LSECT) 
and right sector (RSECT) fields are used to orient the howitzer in a specific 
zone of support. Note: Prior to entering a manual move order into the AFCS, 
the new location sectors of fire, if known, should be applied, otherwise the 
sectors will remain unchanged from previous data entered. 

HOWITZER UPDATE (HOW;UPDATE) 

B-25. The HOW;UPDATE, when transmitted to the LCU, displays the 
howitzer location and other firing-related information. The status reported in 
this format is also displayed in the LCU middle plasma display. The 
HOW;UPDATE should be compared to the platoon operations and survey 
overlays when received. If the LCU operator placed an X in REPORT on the 
HOW;MOVE format, the howitzer automatically reports its location when the 
COS selects ARRIVE on the AFCS. This is done upon arrival at a survey 
point (INITAL on the HOW;MOVE), logistic point, or firing area. If the 
howitzer is moving to a firing point, the reported location should be within 50 
meters (E and N) of the firing point. If the howitzer is sent to a firing area, it 



B-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



should be within the specified radius from the grid sent in the HOW;MOVE. 
If not, the situation should be investigated, since there may be a problem 
with the AFCS. Note: After a survivability move within a firing area the 
HOW;UPDATE is not automatically transmitted when the COS presses the 
arrive key. 

HOWITZER AMMUNITION (HOW;AMOUP) 

B-26. The HOW;AMOUP contains the ammunition file for each howitzer. As 
previously stated, this includes ammunition on the FAASV. If ammunition 
requires more than one page in the file, the first page when received will 
have AMOH: X and subsequent pages will have AMOR: X. Upon receipt of 
each howitzer's ammunition file, the file should be compared to the 
ammunition breakdown specified by thePOC. 

AMMUNITION AND FIRE UNIT UPDATE MESSAGE (AFU;UPDATE) 

IFSAS 

B-27. This format reports platoon location and other tactical information to 
the battalion IFSAS. If received from IFSAS or another LCU, this format 
cannot be executed. It is for information purposes only. It is part of the initial 
setup sequencing and must be executed at that time. Failure to execute this 
format during setup causes the MAXRNG entries to default to 0. This keeps 
the LCU from computing ballistic solutions, since the maximum range for 
each shell type is 0. The CORD and AZ fields reflect averages based on the 
number of HOW;UPDATEs on file. 

HOW;UPDATE AVERAGES 

B-28. Each POC must avoid executing the adjacent platoon's HOW;UPDATEs 
if received, because the CORD and AZ fields reflect averages based on the 
number of HOW;UPDATES on file. Executing the adjacent platoon's updates 
can cause gross errors at the battalion AFATDS/IFSAS when the 
AFU;UPDATE is sent. This does not apply when one LCU must control all six 
howitzers. 

FIRE UNIT AMMUNITION UPDATE MESSAGE (AFU;AMMO) 

B-29. TheAFU;AMMO reports platoon ammunition to AFATDS/IFSAS. J ust 
as with the AFU;UPDATE, the AFU;AMMO cannot be executed when 
received from AFATDS/IFSAS or another LCU. TheAFU;AMMO reflects the 
total platoon ammunition based on the number of HOW;AMOUPs on file. Do 
not execute the adjacent platoon HOW;AMOUPs, as this transmits an 
incorrect AFU;AM MO file to battalion FDC. 

REQUEST FOR DATA MESSAGE (HOW;REQUEST) 

B-30. This format requests database information from AFCS to LCU or from 
LCU to AFCS. When received from AFCS, the LCU operator has only to 
execute the request and the requested information is automatically addressed 
for transmission. A unique capability of this format is that it allows the LCU 
operator to request HOW;UPDATEs while the howitzer is moving. When 



B-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



received by the AFCS, the current howitzer location is transmitted back to 
the LCU. This allows the POC to track howitzer movement while en route to 
the next directed location or during survivability moves when in a position 
area. 

SENSOR-TO-SHOOTER OPERATIONS (LINKED) 

TARGET ACQUISITION LINKS (HOW;OBSERVER) 

B-31. This message links a Paladin howitzer with a TA system. The link 
allows the howitzer and observer to communicate through the LCU. The 
observer, the howitzer, and the POC must be on the same frequency. 

PRIOR COORDINATION 

B-32. Anytime a howitzer is to be linked, prior coordination is essential. This 
is necessary to determine the amount of control and/or support the observer 
needs. The following items must be coordinated with the FSO, FIST, FO, or 
other TA agency: 

• Duration of link. 

• Requirement to store targets, to include priority targets. 

• Target number block to be used. Note: This should be the observer's 
assigned target number block. Do not use the platoon LCU block unless 
absolutely necessary. 

• Type of ammunition required and number of rounds for adjust phase and 
FFE phase of all fire mission processing. 

COPPERHEAD FIRING 

B-33. The most likely situation requiring linked operations is the firing of 
Copperhead. The FIST, combat observation lasing team (COLT), or Striker 
may be linked directly to the howitzer. A direct link also may be used for 
maneuver forces in movement to contact when suppressive fires are needed. 
Priority targets may be established along the axis of attack and then be 
deleted and new ones established as the supported unit moves. 

LINK SUSPENSION/BREAKAGE 

B-34. The POC, using the HOW;OBSR format, establishes as much control as 
needed during the link and terminates the link by transmitting an updated 
HOW;SBT. Otherwise, the link is automatically broken upon expiration of the 
time established in the HOW;OBSR. If the linked observer is processing a fire 
mission, the termination is suspended until the mission is ended. If the AFCS 
has a stored priority target (FPF or priority Copperhead), the linked observer 
cannot establish a priority target until the POC deletes the one previously 
established. The POC may use the howitzer for fire missions, even if linked, 
as long as the howitzer is not processing a mission for the linked observer. I n 
all cases, a priority mission (FPF or priority Copperhead) which has been 
established on the howitzer will override any other mission. 



B-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



FIRE DIRECTION PROCEDURES 

B-35. It is important to understand that Paladin fire mission processing 
differs from that for cannon artillery units such as the M109A5, M198, and 
M119. The AFCS is the primary means of technical fire direction except in 
special situations. If it becomes necessary for the LCU to perform technical 
fire direction, the operator must first ensure that he has the current howitzer 
location and ammunition file. The operator must then place an X in the 
GUNORD field, and an S in the STATUS field of the HOW;UPDATE message 
format. Once a howitzer is placed in a fire mission status and firing 
information is transmitted, only a priority mission (FPF or priority 
Copperhead) will override a mission. If the F DO wishes to override a mission 
in process, he must direct the LCU operator to end the mission in process or 
order the AFCS operator to abort the mission if in a degraded mode of 
operation. 

FM;CFF PROCESSING 

B-36. The LCU unique fields (data elements which follow the EDT indicator) 
are very important. Unlike conventional cannon systems, operator input into 
the LCU reformats the FM;CFF into a HOW;MSN format. This format is for 
transmission only and cannot be found in the message skeletons. Upon 
execution of the FM;CFF, the operator sees an FM;CFF addressed to the 
howitzers specified in the PTF: or SHTF: displayed on the LCU lower display. 
The LCU is not computing technical firing data, so the RG: field and the 
MAXORD: field are not filled out. The RPT: field is also very important. 
Placing an X in this field causes each howitzer to generate a message to 
observer (MTO), shot, splash, and round complete or ready reports to update 
the LCU middle display. The decision to place an X in this field causes an 
increased communications burden on the internal fire direction net because 
each howitzer is reporting. 

FM;CFF:0 PROCESSING 

B-37. This format is received from IFSAS or another LCU. It differs from the 
FM;CFF in that the tactical fire control information (such as shell-fuze and 
number or volleys) is present upon display. Otherwise, operator information 
is input the same as the FM;CFF. 

FM;COMNDS 

B-38. This format is produced when the LCU is performing technical fire 
control. When displayed, this format is automatically addressed for 
transmission to the howitzer which has GUNORD: X in the HOW;UPDATE. 
If the LCU database has a combination of GUNORD: X and GUNORD: 
BLANK in the HOW;UPDATEs, the HOW;MSN will always be prepared for 
transmission first. 

BE ADVISED THAT (BAT) MESSAGES 

B-39. The BAT message is used to inform a subscriber of information 
concerning some action by the AFCS. All messages of this type begin with the 
text: "BAT-DD:HH:MM (day:hour:minute) - ". 



B-8 



HOW;MOVE 



HOW;OBSR 



HOW;SBT 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



B-40. "BAT-DD:HH:MM- MOVE ORDER "LOCATION OF KNOWN POINT 
DATA" PENDING DUE TO NAVIGATION ALIGNMENT IN PROGRESS." 
HOW;MOVE sent while MAPS is in an alignment mode. Upon completion of 
alignment, move will be activated. 

B-41. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - MOVE ORDER "LOCATION OF KNOWN POINT 

DATA" PENDING DUE TO ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

HOW;MOVE sent while AFCS is in a fire mission. Upon end of mission 

(EOM), move will be activated. 

B-42. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - MOVING TO LOCATION "LOCATION OF NEW 

POINT" WHICH ISOUTSIDE OF CURRENT MAP." 

HOW;MOVE sent with spheroid code which differs from that in the MAP 

MOD. 

B-43. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - BCS COMPUTED PRIORITY TARGET ID 
"TARGET NUMBER" HAS BEEN DELETED." 

BCS computed data for a priority target and stored the data in AFCS. Once 
the howitzer moves, this data is no longer valid. 



B-44. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - OBSERVER "LOGICAL NAME OF OBSERVER" 

HAS BEEN DELINKED UPON RECEIPT OF RESTRICTIONS FOR 

OBSERVER." 

If HOW;OBSR sent and the logical name of the observer does not match that 

oftheHOW;SBT, then a delink occurs. 

B-45. "BAT-DD:HH:MM -OBSERVER "LOGICAL NAME OF OBSERVER" 
HAS BEEN DELINKED UPON EXPIRATION OF LINK TIME." 
HOW;OBSR sent which specified an ending data and time group. A delink 
has occurred due to expiration of the specified data and time. 



B-46. "BAT-DD:HH:MM- SUBSCRIBER FILE UPDATE PENDING DUE TO 

ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER "." 

HOW;SBT sent during a fire mission. Upon EOM HOW;SBT will be 

processed. 

B-47. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - SUBSCRI BER Fl LE UPDATED WITH AFCS 
UNDERCHECKFIRE ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 
HOW;SBT sent while AFCS is in a checkfi re status. 

FM;SUBS (EOM & SURV FOR DIGITAL DEVICE) 

B-48. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - EOM "TARGET NUMBER" BDA IS "BDA GIVEN 
BY OBSERVER"." 

EOM sent by linked observer and observer has given battle damage 
assessment (BDA). 



B-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

FM;CFF(HOW;MSN) 

B-49. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - STORED TOT TARGET "STORED TARGET 

NUMBER" ACTIVATED." 

Activation by theAFCS of a stored time on target mission. 

B-50. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - UNEXPECTED SHOT OUT DETECTED." 

The AFCS operator has not followed the firing sequence prompted by the 

AFCS. 

CHECKFIRE OR CANCEL CHECKFIRE 

B-51. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - ALREADY UNDER CHECKFIRE WITH ID 

"TARGET NUMBER"." 

A checkfirehas been sent to AFCS which is already under checkfire. 

B-52. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - ENTERED CHECKFIRE STATUS WITH ID 
"TARGET NUMBER"WHEN NO ACTIVE MISSION." 
A checkfire has been sent to AFCS, which is not in a mission, referencing a 
target number. 

B-53. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - ENTERED CHECKFIRE STATUS WITH ID 

"TARGET NUMBER" WHEN ACTIVE TARGET ID "ACTIVE TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

A checkfire by target number has been sent to AFCS with an active mission 

and the target numbers do not match. 

B-54. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - ENTERED CHECKFIRE STATUS WITH ID 

"TARGET NUMBER"." 

A checkfire by target number has been sent to AFCS and processed. 

STORE TO AFCS TARGET FILE 

B-55. "BAT-DD:HH:MM -TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" STORED." 
PTM sent to digital device which has target write permission from 
HOW;OBSR message. 

B-56. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - A NON PRIORITY TARGET WAS DELETED 

WHICH MATCHED THE STORE PRIORITY TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

A request to delete a target from theAFCS target storage file. 

B-57. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - PRI TARGET "TARGET NUMBER" STORED." 
PTM sent to digital device which has target write permission from 
HOW;OBSR message. 

DELETE FROM AFCSTARGET FILE 

B-58. "BAT-DD:HH:MM -TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" DELETED." 
PTM sent to a digital device, requesting deletion of a stored target. Device 
has been given target write permission from HOW;OBSR message. 

B-59. "BAT-DD:HH:MM -ALL NON PRI TGTS DELETED." 

PTM sent to a digital device, requesting deletion of all stored targets. Device 

has been given target write permission from HOW;OBSR message. 



B-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



MAP MOD 

B-60. "BAT-DD:HH:MM - BCS COMPUTED STORED PRIORITY TARGET 
ID "STORED PRI TARGET NUMBER" WAS DELETED DUE TO CHANGE 
IN MAP ZONE OR SPHEROID." 

BCS transmitted a MAP MOD which changes the zone or spheroid code of 
AFCS stored priority target computed by BCS. 

B-61. "BAT-DD:HH:MM -MAP MODIFICATION COMPLETE." 
BCS transmitted a MAP MOD to AFCS. 

UNABLE TO EXECUTE (UTE) MESSAGES 

B-62. All messages of this type begin with the text: "UTE-DD:HH:MM 
(day:hour:minute) - ". 

CEASE LOAD REQUEST 

B-63. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CEASE LOAD "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 

AFCSUNDERCHECKFIRE." 

Command to cease load sent to AFCS which is under checkfire. 

B-64. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CEASE LOAD "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO NO 

ACTIVE MISSION." 

Command to cease load sent while AFCS is not in an active mission. 

B-65. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CEASE LOAD "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 
ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 
Command to cease load sent with target number different from active mission 
in AFCS. 

FIRE ON TARGET REQUEST (FIRE) 

B-66. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE REQUEST "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 
AFCSUNDERCHECKFIRE "TARGET NUMBER"." 
Request for fire on target sent while AFCS under checkfire. 

B-67. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE REQUEST "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 

ACTIVE MISSION "TARGET NUMBER" NOT AMC." 

Request tofiresent when method of control is not at my command (AMC). 

B-68. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE REQUEST "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 
PRIORITY ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER." 
Request to fire on target number while AFCS is processing a priority fire 
mission (FPF, Copperhead). 

B-69. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE REQUEST OF STORED TARGET ID 

"TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER." 

Request to fire a non priority stored target while AFCS is processing a fire 

mission and the request to fire does not match active mission nor priority 

stored target. 



B-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

FIRE MISSION (HOW;MSN) 

B-70. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE REQUEST "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 

TARGET NOT STORED IN AFCS." 

Request tofireon target number which is not stored in AFCS files. 

B-71. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - HOW;MSN REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO AFCS UNDER CHECKFIRE - ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

Request tofiresent while AFCS under checkfire. 

B-72. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - HOW;MSN REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE PRIORITY MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

Request tofiresent while AFCS processing priority mission. 

B-73. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - HOW;MSN REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 
NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE M ISSION TARGET I D "TARGET NUMBER"." 
Request to fire sent, which is not a priority mission and target number sent 
does not match active mission. 

B-74. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - HOW;MSN REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO LAST MISSION REQUEST FOR THAT TARGET NOT 

COMPLETE." 

If theAFCS is not awaiting EOM or continuation of mission (as in subsequent 

corrections then above UTE is sent. An example would be if the AFCS is 

waiti ng for the howitzer COS to depress the shot key. 

HOWITZER MASK DATA (AFU;MASK) 

B-75. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - MASK UPDATE DUE TO OVERLAPPING 
SEGMENTSIN DEFINITION." 

The AFCS has requested its last reported mask data from the BCS and the 
left and right azimuth limits overlap. 

REQUEST FOR DATA (HOW;REQUEST) 

B-76. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SEND TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO 
NOT STORED IN AFCS - TARGETS IN AFCS "PRIORITY TARGET 
N U M BE R", "STORE D TARGET N U M BE R(S)"." 

A HOW;REQUEST sent requesting a specific target number but that target 
number is not stored in the AFCS. The last portion of the UTE message will 
list thetargets stored in theAFCS. 

B-77. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - SEND ALL TARGETS DUE TO NO TARGETS 
ARE STORED IN AFCS." 

A HOW;RE QUEST sent requesting all targets in AFCS target file because 
there are none in theAFCS target file. 

FIRE COMMANDS (FM;COMNDS) 

B-78. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FM;COMNDS TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
AFCS HAS NOT REPORTED STATIONARY STATUS." 
BCS has computed data to send to AFCS however, theAFCS has not reported 
its current location. 



B-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



B-79. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FM;COMNDS TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
HAS INSUFFICIENT DATA IN THE REQUEST." 

BCS has computed data and transmitted it to AFCS however, the howitzer 
has not been identified in the FU field of the FM:COMNDS message. 

B-80. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FM;COMNDS TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
DUE TO ACTIVE PRIORITY MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
IN PROGRESS." 

BCS has computed data and transmitted it to AFCS which is currently 
processing a priority target. 

B-81. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FM;COMNDS TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
DUE TO LAST MISSION REQUEST FOR THAT TARGET NOT 
COMPLETE." 

BCS has sent FM:COMNDS requesting that AFCS process mission however, 
the AFCS is not in a state with which it can process the mission. The 
howitzer COS has not depressed the "SHOT" and "ROUNDS COMPLETE" 
when prompted. The AFCS must be at awaiting EOM or continuation of 
mission to process anything other than a priority mission. 

END OF MISSION COMMAND (FM;EOM): 

B-82. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - EOM "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE 
MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 

An EOM request is sent to an AFCS and the requested EOM target number 
does not match the active mission. 

B-83. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - EOM "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO NO ACTIVE 

MISSION." 

An EOM request is sent to an AFCS that has no active mission. 

FORWARD OBSERVER COMMAND MESSAGE (FOCMD) 

Fire 

B-84. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRETGTISIN CHECKFIRE." 

A request to fire target number is sent to AFCS and AFCS is in a checkfire 

status. 

B-85. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - Fl RE TGT IS NOT AMC MISSION." 

A request to fire target number is sent to AFCS however, the active mission is 

not an "at my command" method of control. 

B-86. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRE TARGET IS BUSY PRI MSN." 

A request to fire target number is sent to AFCS however, the AFCS is 

processing a priority fire mission. 

B-87. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRE BUSY WITH OTHER MSN." 

A request to fire target number is sent to AFCS however, the target number 

does not match the current active mission. 

B-88. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRE TGT NOT IN TGT FILE." 
A request tofiretarget number is not in the AFCS target file. 



B-13 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

Delete Target 

B-89. BCS Version - "UTE-DD:HH:MM - DELETE TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO NO WRITE TARGET FILE PERMISSION." 

Digital Device Version - "UTE-DD:HH:MM - NO TGT DELETE 

PERMISSION." 

A request to delete a target from AFCS target storage file is received 

however, the HOW;OBSR did not allow target storage permission. 

B-90. BCS Version - "UTE-DD:HH:MM - DELETE TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO NOT STORED IN AFCS - TARGET IN AFCS - 

"STORED PRIORITY TARGET NUMBER AND STORED TARGET 

NUMBER(S)." 

Digital Device Version - "UTE-DD:HH:MM - DELETE "TARGET NUMBER" 

NOT STORED." 

A request to delete target from AFCS target storage file is received however, 

the target number does not match target number(s) in file. 

LINKED OBSERVER MESSAGES (HOW;OBSR) 

B-91. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - ILLEGAL PROJ ECTILE /FUZE COMBINATION 

IN "PHASE" OF THE HOW;OBSR RESTRICTIONS." 

HOW;OBSR sent with illegal projectile / fuze combination in SHAJ : or 

SHEF:. 

FIRE REQUEST (FR;GRID) 

B-92. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -COORD EXPANSION FAILURE." 
A request for fire has been sent in short coordinates and either the observer 
failed to specify the use of grid zone or the MAP MOD does not cover the 
requested area. 

B-93. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - NO TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" 

AVAILABLE." 

The AFCS cannot process the fire request due to all target numbers assigned 

by the HOW;OBSR message have been exhausted. 

B-94. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -NOTADJ PHASE PERMISSION." 

The linked observer was not given adjust fire authority on theHOW:OBSR. 

B-95. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -ALLOWED SH/FZ VIOLATION." 
Linked observer requested an unauthorized shell /fuze combination. 

B-96. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FR;GRID IS IN CHECKFIRE." 
A fire mission is sent whiletheAFCS in under checkfire. 

B-97. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER" MUST BE 

GIVEN." 

If the AFCS is in an active mission then the target number for that mission 

must be sent before any further processing. 

B-98. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -BUSY WITH OTHER MISSION." 

A request for fire is received, with a target number, however, the target 

number does not match the current active mission. 

B-99. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - BUSY LAST REQ FOR "TARGET NUMBER"." 



B-14 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



If the AFCS is not at the awaiting continuation of mission or end of mission 
state, then it will not process any other mission except priority. 

B-100. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -NO ASSIGN PRI MISSION." 
The linked observer does not have target storage permission. 

B-101. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -PRI TGT ALREADY ASSIGNED." 
A priority target already exists at the AFCS. This may have been assigned by 
the BCS or previously assigned by the linked observer. In any case the AFCS 
may only have one priority target. 

SUBSEQUENT ADJ USTMENT (SUBQ ADJ ) 

B-102. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SAEOM /EOM RAT NOT VALI D." 

The linked observer has attempted to request EOM or EOM record as target 

(RAT) with a subsequent adjust (SA) format. 

B-103. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SAISIN CHECKFIRE." 

The AFCS is in a checkfire state and any subsequent adjustment will not be 

processed. 

B-104. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - SA "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO NO MSN." 
The linked observer has attempted subsequent adjustment on a non-active 
mission. 

B-105. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SA BUSY WITH ANOTHER MISSION." 
The linked observer has attempted subsequent adjustment with a target 
number which matches the current active mission however, the AFCS is not 
at an awaiting continuation of mission or EOM state. 

END OF MISSION AND SURVEILLANCE (EOM&SURV) 

B-106. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - EOM TARGET ID REQUIRED." 

The linked observer has attempted to end a mission without the active target 

number. 

B-107. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - EOM "TARGET NUMBER" HAS NO ACTIVE 

MISSION." 

The linked observer has requested EOM on a target which is not active in the 

AFCS. 

B-108. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - EOM "TARGET NUMBER" AS WRONG 

MISSION." 

The linked observer has requested EOM with the incorrect target number. 

QUICK RESPONSE FIRE REQUEST (FR;QUICK) 

Delete 

B-109. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - DELETE TARGET ID NEEDED:" 

The linked observer has requested the deletion of a target, but no target 

number is given. 



Fire 



B-110. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRE TGT IS IN CHECKFIRE." 



B-15 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



A request to fire target number is received however, the AFCS is in a 
checkfi re status. 

B-lll. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - Fl RE TGT AS BUSY LAST REQ." 

A request to fire target number is received and the AFCS is not at an AMC 

status. 

B-112. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - Fl RE TGT AS BUSY PRI MSN." 

A priority mission is currently active and a request to fire stored target is 

received. 

B-113. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -FIRE BUSY WITH OTHER MSN." 

The request tofiretarget number does not match the current mission. 

B-114. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - FIRE TGT NOT IN TGT FILE." 
The requested target is not in target file. 

OPERATOR ABORTED FIRE REQUEST 

B-115. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - AFCS OPERATOR ABORTED 

ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 

The howitzer COS aborted fire mission. This message is sent only to BCS. 

B-116. Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - OPERATOR ABORT ID 

"TARGET NUMBER"." 

The howitzer COS aborted fire mission. This message is sent to digital 

devices. 

TIME ON TARGET (TOT) MISSIONS 

B-117. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORED TOT REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO AFCS UNDER CHECKFIRE - ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

A stored TOT mission was activated automatically by AFCS however, the 

AFCS is under checkfire. 

B-118. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORED TOT REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE PRIORITY MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

A stored TOT mission was activated automatically by AFCS however, the 

AFCS is processing a priority mission (i.e., Copperhead or FPF). 

B-119. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORED TOT REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

ID "TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO ACTIVE MISSION TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER"." 

A stored TOT mission was activated automatically by AFCS however, the 

AFCS is processing a previously requested fire mission. 

B-120. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORED TOT REQUEST TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO LAST MISSION REQUEST FOR THAT TARGET NOT 

COMPLETE." 

A stored TOT mission was activated automatically by AFCS and the TOT 

target number matched the current active mission. If the mission is not 

awaiting EOM or continuation of mission then it will be unable to be 

executed. 



B-16 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



CHECKFIRE OR CANCEL CHECKFIRE 



B-121. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CANCEL CHECKFIRE ID "TARGET NUMBER" 

SINCE NOCHECKFIRE EXISTS." 

A cancel checkfire by target number was sent to AFCS which was not in 

checkfire. 

B-122. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CANCEL CHECKFIRE ID "TARGET NUMBER" 
DUE TO NO MATCH WITH CHECKFIRE ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 
A cancel checkfire by target number was sent to AFCS however, the target 
number did not match. NOTE: A CAN ALL request will always match. 
Caution should be used when using CANALL as an undesired cancel 
checkfire may be sent. 

B-123. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - CHECKFIRE REQUEST "TARGET NUMBER" 
DUE TO AFCS UNDER CHECKFIRE -ID "TARGET NUMBER"." 
A request to checkfire by target number is sent to AFCS however, AFCS is 
already in checkfire. 



TARGET FILE STORAGE AND DELETION 



B-124. The following messages apply to BCS and digital devices when a link 
has occurred. (Note: Only one subscriber may have target storage permission, 
either the BCS or digital device.) 

B-125. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - STORE TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO NOT STORE TARGET Fl LE PERMISSION." 

Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - NO TARGET STORE 

PERMISSION." 

An attempt is made to store a target in the AFCS file however, target storage 

permission was not given in theHOW;OBSR. 

B-126. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - STORE TARGET ID "TARGET 
NUMBER" DUE TO CONFLICT WITH STORED PRIORITY TARGET ID 
"STORE D TARGET N U M BE R"." 

Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM -TARGET ASSIGNED AS PRI." 
An attempt is made to store a priority target by target number and the 
request matches the priority target already in file. 

B-127. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - STORE TARGET ID "TARGET 

NUMBER" DUE TO TARGET LIST FULL." 

Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - TARGET LIST ALREADY 

FULL." 

An attempt is made to store a target however, the AFCS target file is full. 

B-128. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORE PRIORITY TARGET ID 
"TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO NO WRITE TARGET FILE PERMISSION." 
Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM -NO ASSIGN PRI PERMISSION." 
An attempt is made to store a priority target however, target storage 
permission was not given in theHOW;OBSR. 

B-129. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM -STORE PRIORITY TARGET IS 
"TARGET NUMBER" DUE TO EXISTING STORED PRIORITY TARGET ID 
"TARGET NUMBER"." 



B-17 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - PRI TARGET ALREADY 

ASSIGNED." 

An attempt is made to store a priority target however, a priority target 

already exists. 

Delete All (DEL ALL) 

B-130. BCS Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM - DELETE ALL TARGETS DUE TO 

NO WRITE TARGET FILE PERMISSION." 

Digital Device Version: "UTE-DD:HH:MM -NOTGT DELETE 

PERMISSION." 

A request to delete all targets from AFCS target storage file is received 

however, the HOW;OBSR did not allow target storage permission. 

MAP MODIFICATION INFLUENCE ON STORED TARGETS 

B-131. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - STORED TARGET CANNOT BE CONVERTED 

TO THE CURRENT MAP MOD." 

A request to fire a target from the AFCS target storage file is received 

however, the target cannot be converted based on current MAP MOD in 

database. 

AMMUNITION SELECTION 

B-132. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SPECIFIED PROJECTILE LOT "PROJECTILE 

LOT" NOT IN AFCS INVENTORY." 

A fire mission message is sent to AFCS and the specified projectile is not in 

file. 

B-133. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SPECIFIED PROPELLANT LOT "PROPELLANT 

LOT" NOT IN AFCS INVENTORY." 

A fire mission message is sent to AFCS and the specified propellant is not in 

file. 

B-134. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - SPECIFIED FUZE "FUZE MODEL" NOT IN 
AFCS INVENTORY." 

A fire mission message is sent to AFCS and the requested elements do not 
match what is in theAFCS ammunition inventory. 

B-135. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - ILLEGAL PROJ ECTILE, PROPELLANT, FUZE 

COMBINATION." 

A fire mission message is sent to the AFCS and the request contains illegal 

combinations for ammunition, propellant, and fuze. 

B-136. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - 1 NSUFFICI ENT AMMUNITION." 
A fire mission message is sent to the AFCS and the howitzer COS was 
prompted that the requested quantity of ammunition is not on hand. If the 
COS denies the mission for the above reason, then the above UTE is sent to 
the BCS. 

B-137. When theAFCS receives a fire mission message and more than one of 
the specified elements is not in file, one of the following UTE messages is 
sent: 



B-18 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



B-138. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SPECIFIED PROJECTILE LOT "PROJECTILE 
LOT" PROPELLANT LOT "PROPELLANT LOT" AND FUZE MODEL "FUZE 
MODEL" NOT IN AFCS INVENTORY." 

B-139. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SPECIFIED PROJECTILE LOT "PROJECTILE 
LOT" AND PROPELLANT LOT "PROPELLANT LOT" NOT IN AFCS 
INVENTORY." 

B-140. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - SPECIFIED PROJECTILE LOT "PROJECTILE 
LOT" AND FUZE MODEL "FUZE MODEL" NOT I N AFCS I NVENTORY." 

B-141. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -SPECIFIED PROPELLANT LOT "PROPELLANT 
LOT" AND FUZE MODEL "FUZE MODEL" NOT I N AFCS I NVENTORY." 

PROPELLANT SECTION 

B-142. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - PROPELLANT I NSUFFICI ENT." 

A fire mission message is sent to the AFCS and the maximum range of the 

propellant is compared to the range to the target. If the target range exceeds 

85% of that for the propellant (90% for high angle fire) the above UTE is sent 

totheBCS. 

FUZE SELECTION 

B-143. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -BECAUSE "FUZE TYPE" NOT IN INVENTORY." 
A fire mission message is sent to the AFCS however, no legal fuze is found. 

B-144. "UTE-DD:HH:MM - NO LEGAL AMMUNITION COMBINATIONS 

INVENTORY." 

A fire mission message is sent to the AFCS however, the AFCS found no legal 

combinations for projectile, powder, and fuze. 

CHARGE SELECTION 

B-145. "UTE-DD:HH:MM -EXCESSIVE RANGE TO TARGET." 

A fire mission message is sent to AFCS and the target range exceeded 85% of 

the range of the powder model (90% for high angle fire). 



B-19 



Appendix C 

Sample Safety Qualification Checklists 

This appendix provides sample safety qualification checklists designed to 
be used by the commander as a guide to develop a program that fully 
qualifies personnel involved in firing. 

QUALIFICATION TASKS 
TASK1 

C-l. InitializeAFCS. 



Conditions 



C-2. Direct the establishment of digital and voice communications between 
the M 109A6 howitzer and the POC and/or a paired M 109A6 howitzer section. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Ensure the left drive sprocket is within 1 meter of survey control point. 






2. Ensurethetube is in travel lock and turret is locked. 






3. E nsure M 93 chronograph antenna is mounted and connected. 






4. Ensure PLGR is connected. 






5. Ensure vehicle master switch is "ON"; powers up radios. 






6. Turn on DU and observe system status (Explains OK, degraded, or out 
subsystems). 






7. Enter NET ACCESS. 






8. Enter NET ADDRESS. 






9. Enter DATE TIME GROUP and conduct FM voice radio check with POC. 






10. Get initialization data from POC BCS. 






11. Select NAV RESTART. 






12. Enter EASTING. 






13. Enter NORTHING. 






14. Enter ALTITUDE. 






15. Enter GRID ZONE. 






16. Enter SPHEROID. 






17. Enter AMMO INVENTORY (shell, propel lants, and fuzes). 







C-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Performance Measures Continued 


Go 


No 
Go 


18. Enter PROPELLANT TEMPERATURE. 






19. Enter MVV ROUNDS 






20. Enter TOT RESPONSE TIME. 






21. Enter LOAD ELEVATION. 






22. Enter SECTOR OF FIRE. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 2 



C-3. Navigate from one point to another using the AFCS. 



Conditions 



C-4. M109A6 howitzer with an operational AFCS, operating during day and 
night, digital communications with the POC, a move order, section personnel, 
and TM 9-2350-314-10. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


Manually Entered: 






1. Plot destination on map. 






2. Plan route of march on map and inform ATC. 






3. Select manual move order menu. 






4. Enter destination (easting, northing, altitude, grid zone, and spheroid). 






5. Manually input the sectors of fire that are provided by POC. 






6. Verify azimuth of fire (voice) with POC. 






7. Navigate howitzer to destination using navigation aid and map. 






8. If move orders are to a firing point, howitzers must be within 50 meters of 
destination. 






BCS Provided: 






1. Plot destination on map. 






2. Plan route of march on map and inform ATC. 






3. Navigate howitzer to destination. 






4. If move orders are to a firing point, howitzers must be within 50 meters of 
destination. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: 



Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 3 



Conditions 



C-5. Prepare a howitzer for firing with the AFCS. 



C-6. M109A6 howitzer in a firing position, a sector of fire and initialized 
AFCS, section personnel, andTM 9-2350-314-10. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Orient the howitzer onto the general direction of the center of fire. 






2. Conduct prefi re checks (see Task 4). 






3. Verify and record location. 






4. Verify direction (if required byTSOP). 






5. PressARRIVED key on DU. 






6. Determine site data. 






7. Input min QE. 






8. Send piece status. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: 



Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 4 



Conditions 



C-7. Perform prefi re checks. 



C-8. M109A6 in a firing area or point, conducting occupation procedures, day 
or night. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Check tube- must be clean and dry with no visible damage or foreign matter 
present. 






2. Low voltage checks. Check battery generator indicator for low battery voltage. 






3. Breech Mechanism. 






a. Witness mark must align when breech is closed. 






b. Firing mechanism, block assembly, and firing pin must be serviceable. 






c. Primer vent must be clear. 






d. Breech operating handle is securely latched forward. 






4. Perform rammer reliability check. 






5. Recoil system. 






a. Check index pins (1/8 inch to 3/4 inch). 






b. Check recuperator locking nut and cotter pin. 






c. Check recoil locking nut. 






d. Check replenisher pressure gauge (17 - 24 pounds per square inch (psi)). 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: 



Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 5 



Conditions 



C-9. Conduct indirect fire missions using AFCS. 



C-10. M109A6 howitzer moving or emplaced at a firing area or point, an 
operational AFCS, digital communications with the POC, section equipment 
and personnel, TM 9-2350-314-10. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Confirm receipt of fire mission. 






2. Turn on hydraulic control box. 






3. Turn on gun drive servos. 






4. Announce fire mission data (number) or rounds, shell, propellant, and fuze 
information. 






5. Press LOAD key and load ammunition. 






6. Press LAY key. Verify that LAY light on DU is lit, actual and command 
deflection and quadrant are within tolerance (4/- 0.9 mils), and the prompt 
WARNING THE TUBE IS NOT IN THE LAY POSITION is no longer displayed. 
(If it is a high angle mission the command to PRIME will be given before 
pressing the LAY key.) 






7. COS commands PRIME. 






8. COS commands HOOKUP. 






9. COS command FIRE. 






10. Verify expended ammunition. 






11. Turn off servos and hydraulics. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: 



Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-6 



TASK 6 



Conditions 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



C-ll. Manually input data in the AFCS to lay a howitzer for deflection and 
quadrant. 



C-12. M109A6 has lost digital communications after being emplaced at a 
firing point. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Select FIRE COMMANDS menu. 






2. Enter commanded deflection and quadrant. 






3. Press LOAD key to load ammunition. 






4. Press LAY key, lay tube on commanded deflection and quadrant on DU. 






5. Command end of mission using DU. 






6. Verify ammunition inventory. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 7 



Conditions 



C-13. Operate/explain the components of the hydraulic system. 



C-14. M109A6 howitzer, occupation procedures completed and prepared to 
accept fire missions, section equipment and personnel, and TM 9-2350-314- 
10. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Turn master switch to "ON". 






2. Set engine to run at 1000- 1200 RPM. 






3. Ensure cooling fan switch is in automatic position. 






4. Ensure hydraulic warm-up switch is in the automatic position. 






5. Turn hydraulic power switch to "ON". 






6. Check hydraulic pressure gauge for correct operating pressure (shuts system 
down if incorrect pressure reading). 






7. Select proper operation of controls as directed by the instructor. 






8. Use override switch to return to within traverse limits. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: 



Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 8 



Conditions 



C-15. Perform AFCS confidence test. 



C-16. M109A6 howitzer with initialized AFCS, a movement order to a survey 
control point, and a survey control point with known data to a distant aiming 
point. 



Performance Measures 



Performance Measures 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Position howitzer within 1 meter of survey control point toward distant aiming 
point. 






2. With the STEER TO FIRE AREA screen displayed read and record AFCS 

position data under POSN (easting, northing and altitude) and the range to 

destination (RNG) in the upper right corner of the screen. Subtract the POSN 

altitude from the DESTN altitude. Compare the data obtained with the following 

tolerances: 

RNG 26 meters or less 

Altitude Difference 4/- 26 meters 

Note: If the data is within tolerance but not exact, do a position navigation 

update. 






3. Press ARRIVED key. 






4. Check boresight of the pantel with M 140 alignment device. 






5. Using the azimuth deflection knob align the vertical hair line of the pantel on 
the distant aiming point, level the pitch and cross level bubbles, and check 
alignment. 






6. Rotate counter reset knob on pantel until 3200 appears on the reset counter. 






7. Remove tube from the stowed position, install breech boresighting disc, and 
muzzle cross hairs on tube. 






8. Using the boresighting disc, align the tube on the distant aiming point. Note: 
Primer vent hole may be used if boresighting disc is missing. 






9. Level pitch and cross level bubbles on pantel mount and realign vertical hair 
line on pantel using the azimuth deflection knob. 






10. Using the auxiliary quadrant, level the elevation vial. 






11. If fire mission screen is not already displayed select fire commands menu 
from the setup and information menu to display fire mission screen. 






12. Read the actual deflection and quadrant on the AFCS and compare them 
with the deflection and quadrant obtained in steps 9 and 10. The tolerance 
between the readings should be 4/- 2 mils. Note: Quadrant should also be 
checked with a pretested gunner's quadrant. Reading should compare to 4/- 2 
mils. 






13. Select display format from the setup and information menu. 






14. Change display from deflection to azimuth and return to the fire mission 
menu. Read the actual azimuth. 







C-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Performance Measures Continued 


Go 


No 
Go 


15. Compare the azimuth displayed on the AFCS with the measured azimuth to 
thedistant aiming point. Azimuth should compare to ■+/- 2 mils. 







If the soldier scored "no go", tell him and write a brief explanation in the space below. 



Check one: Go 



NoGo 



Instructor's I nitials 



C-10 



Appendix D 

Example Platoon Operations Center Configuration 

INTRODUCTION 

D-l. The POC of the Paladin platoon is in an M577/M1068 command post 
carrier. The additional equipment associated with the Paladin system 
requires revision of the POC layout outlined in FM 6-40 for M109A5 units. 
Figure D-l shows a top view of the inside of the M577/M 1068 while Figure D- 
2, shows a top view from the outside. 



Manual 
Storage 



FM Radio 



FM Radio 



Intercom 



LCU/ 
AFATDS 



Printer 



Platoon Status/ 
Ammunition Board 



Field 
Table 



Ammo SGT 
or Pit Ldr 



LCU 
Operator 

^0 



Chief's 
Chair 



NBC 



Equipment 
Box 



DO 



Sliding • 
Tactical Map 
& Unit Status 

Charts 



Pit Ldr 
orFDO 


Platoon 
Situation Map 
and/or Chart 




Radio 
Operator: 


Worktable 

Map & Overlay 
Storage 





Ramp 



Maneuver Board 




Field 
Table 


Chart j 
Operator! 





Tent Extension 



Figure D-1. Top View, Inside M577/M1068 Example 



D-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 




Fuel 
Cans 



Trim Vane (Open) - Personal Gear 



4.2 kw 
Generator 



Optional Site 

for 3 kw Generator 

(Elevated Mount Needed) 




Camouflage 

Net 



3kw 
Generator 



Legend: 

kw = kilowatt 

TC = track commander 



Extension 



Figure D-2. Top View, Outside M577/M1068 Example 

D-2. An additional way to configure the inside of the M577/M1068 is 
illustrated in Figure D-3. 



D-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 









NBC 
Equipment 




LCU 




Printer 






Radios 




AFATDS 






1 



LCU 
Operator 

^0 



FDC 
Chief 

AFATDS 
Operator 



FDO 


Work 
Area 

Situation 
Map ► 




HTC 









Figure D-3. Top View, Inside M577/M1068 Example 

INSIDE VIEW, M577/M1068 

INTERNAL RIGHT SIDE CONFIGURATION 

D-3. The internal right side configuration may include the modifications 
discussed below. 

CVC Helmet Hanger 

D-4. A storage cabinet with CVC helmet hanger may be fabricated from sheet 
metal or wood. The recommended dimensions are 19 1/2 inches high x 17 1/2 
inches widex 21 3/4 inches deep. 

Map/Overlay Storage 

D-5. A map and overlay storage container may be made with 3-inch plastic 
pipe and joining collars. 

Map Boards 

D-6. By securing a track along the top right side, a unit may secure sliding 
Plexiglas map boards for easy use by the crew. After mounting the maps, the 
crew may transfer tactical overlays to the Plexiglas. The crew may then 
attach the unit status boards to the side of the M 577. 

Fire Direction Chief's Chair 

D-7. For the fire direction chief's chair, the unit can secure a swivel chair, 
minus legs, to the shelf. To maintain access to the battery compartment, an 
easy or quick disconnect is required. 



D-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



INTERNAL LEFTSIDE CONFIGURATION 



D-8. The internal left side configuration may include the modifications 
discussed below. 



Intercom Box Mounts 



Radio Mounts 



D-9. I ntercom boxes are mounted on a mounting plate that may be fabricated 
by the unit. Thus, the intercom boxes can be moved out of the way to the top 
shelf with the radios. 



D-10. TheSINCGARS are mounted in "doghouses". Mounting the radios in 
the protective housing lets the crew stack the radios effectively. 



Storage Shelf Height 

D-ll. The shelf above the LCU is raised 3.5 inches. Fabricate metal mounting 
straps to raise the shelf above the LCU. This eliminates the need to cut the 
shelf. 

Manual Storage Cabinet 

D-12. A manual storage cabinet can be made from metal or wood and used to 
store reference manuals and other required papers. The recommended 
dimensions are 11 inches high x 32 inches wide x 12 inches deep. 



Swivel Stool 



D-13. The unit could use a swivel stool with back or order the swivel seat 
from the variable format message entry device installation kit for the M 577. 



OTHER IMPROVEMENTS, M577/M1068 

D-14. Other considerations for overall improvement of thePOC include the 
following: 

• Install 24-volt fans along the ceiling by the work stations to aid in cooling 
and ventilation. 

• Install encased fluorescent light fixtures to increase lighting and decrease 
heat generated by incandescent lighting. 

• I nstall heavy-duty rubber floor matting. 

• Remove table or work extensions except at the situation map center. 

• Attach corkboard to the wall of the M577/M1068 at the radio operator's 
station for charts, notes, and a call-sign board. 

• Consider using Velcro strips or Velcro-backed boards for quick removal 
and updating. This is especially useful if multiple boards are maintained 
and various setups can be used (e.g., tent extension or a modified trailer). 

• Consider installing a map display with the materials listed in Figure D-4. 
(Reference: FM 1-111, Aviation Brigades, Chapter 2). 



D-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



6 in 



8 ft 6 in 



Plexiglas Sheet 4 ft x 8 ft 



Black Draftsman Tape 
Mounted Backside of Plexiglas 



4 ft 6 in 



Materials 

1 - Sheet 4 ft x 8 ft Plywood 
4- 1 x 6 inch Strips (12 ft) 
1 - 4 ft x 8 ft Sheet Plexiglas 
5 - Rolls Black Tape 1/4 inch 
1 - 3 ft Blacklight with 
Brackets 



4 in 



-T 



Top View 



, Blacklight Attached 



Q: 



:z: 



--U 



Figure D-4. Example Map Display 



INSIDE VIEW, TENT EXTENSION 

INTERNAL RIGHT SIDE CONFIGURATION 



D-15. The internal right side configuration (Figure D-5) may include the 
modifications discussed below. 



D-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Storage 
Cabinet 



Heater 



Map and Overlay Storage 



Sliding Tactical Map Units 
and Status Charts 



Worktable 



Chief's 
Chair 



NBC Equipment 



Plotting 
Chest 



i — — i 

Chart 

Operator's Chair 



Tactical Map 



Worktable 



Figure D-5. Tent Extension Inside View, Right Side Example 



D-16. The platoon leader uses the tactical map to track the maneuver 
situation and plan tactical moves. 



D-17. The worktable is used to develop movement instructions or the chart 
operator can work here instead of inside the M 577/M 1068. 

Status/Ammunition Board 

D-18. The platoon leader monitors the status/ammunition board to track 
Class III, Class V, Class IX, and howitzer status. This takes the 
administrative/logistics activities out of the M 577/M 1068 and allows the crew 
to concentrate on tactical fire direction. 

Platoon Leader's Battlebook 

D-19. This book is an easily transportable binder used by the platoon leader 
when he is away from the POC. The book should contain all the information 
maintained on the POC's status charts and all reports. It is maintained by 
the platoon leader and provides a redundant record of important data 
regarding platoon operations. 



D-6 



Appendix E 

Environmental Awareness 

Commanders, unit leaders, and soldiers have specific duties and 
responsibilities concerning protection of the environment. Soldiers are 
expected to do what is right in the absence of specific guidance. Unit 
leaders and commanders must be competent and confident in the area of 
environmental stewardship. Not all leaders are required to be 
environmental experts; however, they must be aware and responsive to 
compliance and prevention issues required during the execution of their 
duties. The information contained herein is considered an overview of 
expected duties and responsibilities in order to build a foundation of basic 
environmental awareness. Throughout is reference to material for further 
reading; research of these documents provides a complete explanation of 
legal and ethical responsibilities. 



SECTION I - ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS 



GENERAL POLICY STATEMENTS 

E-l. The Army's environmental vision states: "The Army will be a national 
leader in environmental and natural resource stewardship for present and 
future generations as an integral part of our mission". To achieve this vision, 
the Army's environmental strategy places a high priority on sustained 
compliance with all environmental laws; takes into account the restoration of 
previously contaminated sites; focuses on pollution prevention; and accounts 
for the conservation and preservation of natural resources. 

E-2. The Army environmental ethic calls for the chain of command to 
establish and support a stewardship climate which supports compliance, 
obeying the law; prevention, the concept of reduce, reuse, recycle; 
conservation, control and protection of natural resources; and restoration, the 
cleanup of contaminated areas. This ethic supports caring for the 
environment while conducting realistic training. 

E-3. Army personnel should become familiar with these policy statements; 
they are established so that our natural environment will be available for 
present and future generations. Complete information regarding these polices 
can be obtained in Section II of The Field Artillery Guide to Environmental 
Considerations. 



E-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



SECTION II - PALADIN SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 



FIELD ACTIVITIES 



E-4. The M109A6 Howitzer (Paladin) is a powerful, highly mobile, and very 
lethal weapon system capable of providing devastating fire support from 
multiple locations. Because of this power and mobility, the Paladin provides 
tremendous tactical advantage. These same attributes that contribute to their 
lethality and tactical value make them a threat to our environment unless 
they are employed prudently and in consideration of environmental 
preservation. This section will identify and address the various preventive 
measures that can be utilized in order to decrease possible environmental 
damage while conducting realistic training from the Paladin, associated 
vehicles, and support personnel involved in training and operations. 

E-5. Key field environmental considerations include, but are not limited to, 
the following: 

• Wheeled and tracked combat vehicles should stay on established roads, 
trails, firing points, and firebreaks, unless conducting specific cross- 
country maneuver exercises. Additionally, confine pivot turns and neutral 
steers to the middle of the roadway. 

• Follow land contours rather than driving up and down hills or along 
creeks. 

• In order to minimize siltation of streams; use bridges or low water 
crossings when crossing permanent streams. If crossing through a stream 
becomes necessary, then do so by the most direct route (90-degree angle). 

• Establish refueling and maintenance areas away from wetlands, drainage 
areas, and near or over water sources. 

• Federal law prohibits the removal of artifacts from federal property. Do 
not excavate, remove, damage, or otherwise alter or deface any 
archaeological resource located on a military reservation. 

• Avoid and mark off-limit areas for known archaeological sites during 
military training exercises. Penalties can be up to $250,000 for knowingly 
disturbing a site. 

• Be aware of and avoid nesting, bedding, and habitats of all species of 
birds and animals. Mark as off-limits, designated threatened or 
endangered species areas. 

• Use camouflage netting instead of live vegetation. 

• When planning training activities, conform to installation and community 
noise-abatement regulations. Identify and mark the off-limit boundaries. 

• Open fires, such as burning of garbage, refuse, and rubbish is not allowed 
on range areas. For burning excess powder increments, use only 
designated powder burn sites. 

• Conform to field sanitation and medical standards when using soakage 
pits for wash water, liquid kitchen wastes, and grease traps per FM 21- 
10, Field Hygiene and Sanitation. 

• Establish field satellite-accumulation site and procedures. 



E-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Police field locations and establish field trash-collection point and 
procedures. Remove materials packed into training area on departure 
from the training area. 

• When the training exercise is complete, repair any field damage such as 
ruts from vehicles, foxholes, and other emplacements. 

• Conduct all training with a concern for conservation and future use of 
range training areas. 

MUNITIONS 

E-6. Munitions and ordnance are not considered wastes as long as they are in 
their life cycle of use and may still be used for their intended purpose. 
Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management 
requirements do not apply to: 

• Explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) sites that are used solely for training, 
emergency, and range clearance operations. 

• Open burning/open detonation training activities on training ranges, 
impact ranges, firing ranges, or the equivalent. 

• Burning excess propellant bags/increments incidental to the training 
mission. All excess powder will be burned at designated powder burn 
areas. 

• Installation range clearance operations of conventional ordnance. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE 

E-7. The RCRA of 1976 is the framework for managing hazardous waste and 
has established standards for identifying, classifying, and storing of these 
wastes. RCRA regulations require those involved in managing hazardous 
substances to be properly trained, and the training to be properly 
documented. 

E-8. Key hazardous material and hazardous waste environmental 
considerations include, but are not limited to, the following items: 

• Personnel dealing with hazardous materials should be trained in proper 
handling, containment, cleanup, and reporting procedures. 

• A material safety data sheet (MSDS) must be on file, and made available 
to all personnel regarding hazardous material. 

• Bore cleaner waste. Is a chlorinated hydrocarbon product used? If so, how 
is the waste disposed? 

• Battery electrolyte (acid) from damaged batteries should be drained and 
disposed of through turn-in via installation policy and maintenance SOP. 
Refer to TB 43-0134, Battery Disposition and Disposal, for complete 
procedures regarding battery handling and disposal. 

• Never allow the accumulation of more than 55 gallons of a hazardous 
waste, or 1 quart of acutely hazardous waste, at the satellite 
accumulation point. Process all hazardous waste in a timely manner. 

• Hazardous waste containers should be kept closed when not in use, kept 
free of rust and leaks, and stored separately from incompatible wastes. 

• I ncompatible wastes must never be transported on the same vehicle. 



E-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Ensure that all Department of Transportation (DOT) and hazardous 
waste transportation requirements are met prior to transporting 
hazardous material or hazardous waste on public highways. 

• Check with the local environmental office for transportation procedures 
within the installation boundary. 

• For complete information regarding storing and handling of hazardous 
materials refer to TM 38-410, Storage and Handling of Hazardous 
Materials. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET 

E-9. A MSDS is a summary of information on a given chemical identifying 
material, health and physical hazards, exposure limits, and precautions. A 
MSDS describes the hazards of a material and provides information on how 
the material can be safely handled, used, and stored. Insist on receiving a 
copy of a MSDS when receiving a hazardous chemical from supply, and retain 
it for when or if you turn in the material. As time permits, periodically review 
each MSDS pertaining to your unit. This will assure a quick response when 
identifying symptoms and handling emergencies. 

E-10. Unfortunately, there is no specified format for a MSDS, and it doesn't 
contain all known data of a chemical, but there are typical components. These 
are outlined in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1200. Use the 
following information (Figure E-l) as a guide toward what to expect on most 
MSDS forms. 



Section/Topic 


Contents 


Section 1 - General Information 


Manufacturers' name and address 
Trade or common name of product 


Section 2 - Hazardous Components 


NIOSH and/or chemical abstract system number 
Chemical name and percentage 


Section 3 - Physical Properties 


Boiling point, freezing point, water solubility, etc. 
Appearance and odor under normal conditions 


Section 4 - Fire & Explosion Hazard 


Fire-fighting equipment 

Any unusual fire and explosion hazards 


Section 5 - Health Hazard 


Routes of entry into the body 
Emergency and first aid procedures 


Section 6 - Reactivity Data 


Conditions to avoid 
Incompatibility with other materials 


Section 8 - Control Measures 


Recommended respiratory and ventilation 
Personal protective equipment, if needed 


Section 9 - Special Precautions 


Handling and storing precautions 


Section 10 - Transportation 


Applicable regulations 

Hazards class and required labeling 



Figure E-1. Material Safety Data Sheet 



MAINTENANCE 



E-4 



SUPPLY 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



E-ll. The maintenance officer acts as the hazardous material/hazardous 
waste (HM/HW) spill coordinator. He/she ensures the accountability, proper 
storage, and disposal of all HM/HW, and ensures that HM/HW spills are 
immediately contained and reported. Additionally, the maintenance officer 
reports nonfunctional/inoperative treatment/collection facilities (such as 
oil/grease interceptors, floor drains, or catch basins) to the installation 
environmental office through the unit environmental compliance officer 
(ECO). 

E-12. Key maintenance environmental considerations include, but are not 
limited to, the following: 

• Motor maintenance areas require SOPs and close monitoring; this 
operation is a continuous source of minor pollution to storm drainage 
systems due to the constant threat of a spill of fuel or oil. SOPs for 
prevention or cleanup of spills should be posted in motor maintenance 
areas, and should be understood by all personnel involved in 
maintenance activities. 

• Refueling operation SOPs should address practices to minimize spills. 

• Implement preventive maintenance on all heavy equipment to ensure 
petroleum products will not be released from the belly pan. 

• Ensure pollutants are not discharged into storm or washrack drains or 
poured on the ground or along fence lines. Some common pollutants are 
oil, solvents, soap, diesel, gasoline, battery acid, chemicals, waste 
antifreeze, paint, and grease. 

• Asbestos containing parts such as brake shoes, clutch plates, and 
equipment insulation should be removed, collected, and disposed 
according to installation policy. 

• The least hazardous or preferably, non-hazardous material to perform a 
function should be used, unless previous research of options clearly 
indicates otherwise. The Defense Logistics Agency produces a manual, 
Environmental Products, to assist in this process. 

• Do not mix fuel, oil, or antifreeze together. This is considered a mixed 
waste. 



E-13. The supply sergeant is required to have a complete inventory of 
HM/HW generated by the unit. He/she must also know what chemicals the 
unit requires, where and how they are stored, how much hazardous waste is 
generated, and necessary spill response procedures. The supply sergeant 
should coordinate with the unit S3 or ECO to ensure this information is 
incorporated into the unit SOP. 

E-14. Key supply environmental considerations include, but are not limited 
to, the following items: 

• Requisition only supplies needed and authorized, avoid excessive 
stockpiling of materials. 

• Maintain an accurate inventory in unit SOP of hazardous waste used by 
the generating unit. This listing should include waste by volume, type, 
generating process, and location. 



E-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Use of used oil tanks for disposal of solvents, antifreeze, or other 

HM/HW is against regulation. Storage of hazardous material must be in 

clearly marked DOT-approved containers. 

Actively support a unit-recycling program. 

Ensure tires and batteries are properly turned in for recycling. 

Ensure used batteries are turned in on a one-for-one basis. 



SPILL RESPONSE 



E-15. Generally, only persons specifically trained to respond to a spill should 
handle unit spills. However, all personnel should, at a minimum, report the 
spill, and be aware of the following four basic steps to spill response: 

• Protect yourself. Use personal protective equipment specified in the 
MSDS. 

• Stop the flow. This may be as simple as placing the container upright or 
closing a valve. 

• Contain the spill. Place absorbent material around the spill, and protect 
drains and ditches. 

• Report the spill. Notify supervisor, and other key personnel. 

E-16. Each unit is responsible for the cleanup of their own spills, as long as 
no personnel are put in danger. After the above four steps are completed, 
take the necessary steps to cleanup the spill. Information on cleanup 
procedures can be found on the MSDS, unit SOP, or contact installation 
environmental staff for guidance. Turn in the spilled material and absorbent 
to the Defense Reuti I ization Marketing Office (DRMO), or another designated 
point if a DRMO is not available. Also, ensure there are adequate spill 
supplies on-hand for future use. 

E-17. Key spill prevention, response, and cleanup considerations include, but 
are not limited to, the following items: 

• A spill prevention and response section should be included in the unit 
SOP outlining installation spill plan requirements. 

• Each unit should make available and maintain a spill cleanup kit near 
any satellite-accumulation area, or where a potential for spill exists. The 
kit should contain, at a minimum, absorbent material, shovel, brooms, 
gloves, and appropriate containers. Units who have a potential for 
release or spill that may impact streams should also maintain brooms 
for containment. 

• Drip pans should be used under vehicles and equipment where spills are 
likely to occur. 

• Spills of oil, fuel, or other hazardous pollutants over 5 gallons in volume, 
100 square feet in area, or in any waterway should be reported 
immediately to the chain of command. 

• All topsoil contaminated with oil should be removed, properly disposed, 
and replaced by the unit. While awaiting disposal, keep the excavated 
soil covered to prevent runoff in case of rain. 



SECTION III - REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 



E-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



LAWS AND REGULATIONS 

E-18. Military facilities are subject to federal, state, local, and host nation 
environmental laws; when the requirements differ, the most stringent 
applies. Ignorance of environmental laws is not an excuse for non-compliance, 
and it will not protect commanders, soldiers, or the military services from 
civil and criminal liability. Figure E-2 lists the federal and military laws and 
regulations that are frequently encountered by Army personnel; however, it 
is not inclusive of all requirements. 

E-19. Additionally, environmental law varies with differing countries, states, 
and cities. What is legal in one area may be illegal in another. Each 
installation environmental office knows the laws for that locality, and should 
be consulted on environmental considerations during the planning and 
execution of training. 

E-20. Army units outside the continental United States (OCONUS) that are 
not subject to federal environmental regulations decreed by the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should comply with the final 
governing standards of the host nation. In areas where a host nation has 
minimal or no environmental laws and regulations, comply with the Overseas 
Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (OEBGD) provided by the 
Department of Defense, AR 200-1, Environmental Protection and 
Enhancement, and AR 200-2, Environmental Effects of Army Actions. 















Army Regulations 

AR 200-1. Environmental Protection and 

Enhancement 

AR 200-2. Environmental Effects of Army Actions 

AR 200-3. Natural Resources 




Federal Laws 

Archaeological Protection Act of 1979 




Clean Air Act of 1970 
Clean Water Act of 1972 


AR 200-4. Historic Preservation 

AR 420-49. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management 

AR 420-76. Pest Management 


CERCLA of 1980 
EPCRAof 1986 


Endangered Species Act of 1973 

Federal Facilities Compliance Act of 1992 

Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 

1975 

National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 

Noise Control Act of 1972 

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 

RCRAof 1976 

Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 










Executive Orders 




EO 1 1989. Use of off-road vehicles on public land 

EO 1 1990. Wetland protection 

EO 1 21 1 4. Effects of federal actions abroad 

EO 12196. OSHA Compliance for federal employees 

EO 12580. CERCLA duties and powers 

EO 13101. Pollution prevention and recycling 













Figure E-2. Environmental Laws and Regulations 



REGULATORY TRAINING REQUIREMENTS 

E-21. Regulatory agencies exist which require environmental training. This 
training may be at the awareness level for all personnel or at a more 
specialized level designed for specific personnel. The installation 
environmental and safety offices can best assist in determining your training 
requirements and who to contact for additional information. Table E-l is 



E-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



provided as a reference of possible training requirements for Paladin 
operations. 

Table E-1. Regulatory Training Requirements 

NOTE: The depth or level of training will vary between target audiences. For example, K and E will need in- 
depth training, while A will only require broad overviews. The letters K, E, N, or A denotes target audience, and 
are listed below. 



Knowledge 


Personnel who administer, implement, or comply with contents of regulations such as 
program manager and technicians in the environmental field. Also includes organizations 
that need in-depth knowledge of the environmental laws/regulations/programs, such as 
staff judge advocate. 


Executors 


All personnel who supervise or actually handle responsibilities dealing with environmental 
programs, to include ECOs, technicians, and workers. Also includes unit personnel 
required to execute responsibilities with environmental ramifications as part of their 
mission. 


Need to Know 


Personnel who may encounter environmental issues as part of their mission. This may 
include personnel within the following activities: engineers; designers; emergency 
personnel; safety; reserve components; first-line supervisors; crew chiefs; NCOs; and 
various unit personnel as identified by the installation environmental office and their 
supervisors 


Awareness 


Public affairs office, reserve components, other unit personnel. 



E-8 



Table E-1. Regulatory Training Requirements (Continued) 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Training Topic 


Regulatory Reference 


K 


E 


N 


A 


Hazardous Materials/Waste Compliance Training 


29 CFR 1200; 40 CFR 262.34, 264.16, 
265.16; 49 CFR 172 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Hazardous Waste Operations for Installation 
Restoration 


29 CFR 1910.120 


* 


* 






Hazardous Waste Operations for Treatment 
Storage and Disposal Facilities 


29 CFR 1910.120 


* 


* 






Emergency Response to Hazardous Materials 
Incidents/Hazardous Material Technician 


29 CFR 1910.120 


* 


* 


* 




National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 


NEPA of 1969 


* 






* 


National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) 


36 CFR part 800, 36 CFR part 63, 
NHPA of 1966 


* 






* 


Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) 


43 CFR 7.7 (4) ARPA of 1979 


* 








Native American Graves Protection and 
Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) 


NAGPRA of 1990 


* 








Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- 
Know(EPCRA) 


EPCRA/SARA 1986 Title 3, Executive 
Order 12856 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Lead Based Paint 


Lead Based Paint Exposure Reduction 
Act of 1992, 24 CFR 35 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Asbestos 


40 CFR part 763, 40 CFR 61 part M 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Endangered Species Act (ESA) 


ESA 1973 as amended, 50 CFR par 
402 


* 






* 


Clean Water Act (CWA) 


CWA S 311 


* 


* 




* 


Storm Water Pollution Prevention Planning 


CWA S 319 


* 


* 


* 




CFC/Halon Refrigerants 


EO 1 1 051 , 40 CFR 82.40, 40 CFR 
282, 58 FR 92 (p. 28660) 




* 


* 


* 


Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide 
Act (FIFRA) 


FIFRA of 1972, 40 CFR 265.16, SARA 
of 1986 




* 






Solid Waste Management 


40 CFR 240-257/RCRA Subtitle D 


* 






* 


Underground Storage Tanks 


40 CFR part 280, RCRA Subtitle I 


* 








National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 
(NPDES) 


CWA of 1990, 40 CFR 122-129 


* 


* 




* 


Confined Space Entry 


29 CFR 1910.146 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Occupational Respiratory Protection 


29 CFR 1926.58, 29 CFR 1910.134 


* 


* 






Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne 
Pathogens 


29 CFR 1910.1030 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Storm Water Compliance 


40 CFR 1 22-1 29, WPCA S 31 9 


* 


* 






Hazard Communication Standard 


29 CFR 1910.1200 


* 


* 


* 


* 


Department of Transportation 


49 CFR1 72.704 


* 


* 


* 


* 



ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE OFFICER RESPONSIBILITIES 

E-22. It is the unit commander's duty to appoint an ECO and a hazardous 
waste coordinator; the same person can serve in both positions, per AR 200-1. 
These appointments are made to ensure that environmental compliance 
occurs at the unit level. Appointed personnel: 

• Should receive formal training and act as an advisor on environmental 
regulatory compliance during training, operations, and logistics 
functions. 

• Will be the commander's eyes and ears for environmental matters, as 
the safety officer/NCO is for safety matters. 



E-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Should function as the liaison between the unit and higher headquarters 
regarding environmental matters such as training requirements, 
equipment, or supplies that unit personnel need. 

Should inspect HM/HW accumulation sites, and ensures that soldiers 
handling these materials are properly trained. 

Ensure the unit's SOP covers environmental considerations, 

conservation, natural resources, pollution prevention, HM/HW, and spill 

procedures. 

Support the Army's pollution prevention/recycling program. 

Report hazardous material and waste spills immediately. 

Conduct environmental self-assessments or internal environmental 

compliance assessments, and meet with key installation environmental 

points of contact, as necessary, to remain updated on any regulatory 

changes. 



SECTION IV - ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 



ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT 

E-23. Leaders at all levels are required to make timely and appropriate 
decisions regarding the environment. The failure to do so may negatively 
impact the training environment, which could then lead to personal liability 
of individuals directly involved, the chain of command, and the US Army. 
Therefore, leaders must have a method of managing, assessing, and reducing 
environmental risks. 

THE FIVE-STEP PROCESS 

E-24. Risk management is a five-step process designed to provide leaders a 
methodology for the identification, assessment, control, and evaluation of 
environmental risks. The following is a summary of these steps from FM 20- 
400, Military Environmental Protection, and FM 100-14, Risk Management. 
(Refer to these F Ms for detailed information.) 

E-25. Step 1. Identify Hazards - Environmental hazards include all activities 
that may pollute, create negative noise-related effects, degrade 
archeological/cultural resources, or negatively effect threatened or 
endangered species habitats. A select listing of common environmental 
hazards is located in Figure E-3. 



E-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Media Area 


Common Environmental Hazards 


Air 


Equipment exhaust, convoy dust, range fires, open-air burning, 
pyrotechnics/smoke pots/smoke grenades, part-washer emissions, 
paint emissions, air-conditioner/refrigeration CFCs, HM/HW release, 
pesticides, other toxic industrial chemicals or material. 


Archeological and cultural 


Maneuvering and digging in sensitive areas, disturbing or removing 
artifacts, demolition/munitions effects, HM/HW spills. 


Noise 


Low-flying aircraft (helicopters), demolition/munitions effects, nighttime 
operations, operations near post/camp boundaries and civilian 
populations, vehicle convoys/maneuvers, large-scale exercises. 


Threatened and/or 
endangered species 


Maneuvering in sensitive areas, demolition/munitions effects, 
especially during breeding seasons, disturbing habitat or individual 
species, HM/HW spills or releases, poor field sanitation, improper 
cutting of vegetation, damage to coral reefs, 


Soil (terrain) 


Over use of maneuver areas, demolition/munitions effects, range fires, 
poor field sanitation, poor maneuver-damage control, erosion, troop 
construction effect, refueling operations, HM/HW spills, maneuver in 
ecologically sensitive areas such as wetlands and tundra, industrial 
waste runoff, pesticide accumulation in soil, vegetation, and terrestrial 
organisms. 


Water 


Refueling operations near water sources, HM/HW spills, erosion and 
unchecked drainage, amphibious/water-crossing operations, troop 
construction effects, poor field sanitation, washing vehicles at 
unapproved sites. 



Figure E-3. Common Environmental Hazards 

E-26. Step 2. Assess Environmental Hazards to Determine Risk - A risk 
assessment is a tool used for evaluating the most pressing or most hazardous 
potential environmental damage. It considers two factors; probability, how 
often a hazard is likely to occur; and severity, the effect in degrees a hazard 
will have on personnel, equipment, environment, and mission. Unit leaders 
should conduct risk assessments before conducting any training, operations, 
or logistical activities that are not previously addressed in the SOP, or when 
conditions differ significantly from the SOP. Complete information on risk 
assessments can be obtained from FM 20-400 for procedures on how to 
perform an environmental risk assessment. 

E-27. Step 3. Develop Controls and M ake a Decision - This step is designed to 
reduce the probability or severity of each hazard, which in turn lowers the 
overall risk. Control types fall in the categories of educational, physical, or 
avoidance. Figure E-4 outlines examples of environmental controls, and 
Section II contains the specifics pertinent to thePaladin. 



E-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Control Type 


Environmental-Related Examples 


Educational 


• Conducting unit environmental-awareness training 

• Conducting an environmental briefing before deployment 

• Performing tasks to environmental standards 

• Reviewing environmental considerations in AARs 

• Reading unit's environmental SOPs and policies 


Physical 


• Providing spill-prevention equipment 

• Establishing field satellite-accumulation site and procedures 

• Policing field locations 

• Practicing good field sanitation 

• Posting signs and warnings for off-limit areas 


Avoidance 


• Maneuvering around historical/cultural sites 

• Establishing refueling and maintenance areas away from wetlands and 
drainage areas 

• Crossing streams at approved sites 

• Preventing pollution 

• Limiting noise in endangered and threatened species habitats 



Figure E-4. Environmental-related Controls 

E-28. Step 4. I mplement Controls - Leaders must inform subordinates of risk- 
control measures, state how each control is to be implemented, and assign 
responsibilities. They must also ensure these controls are in place prior to the 
operation. This is accomplished by using the before, during, and after 
checklists and the environmental risk-assessment process. Examples of 
checklists can be obtained from Training Circular (TC) 5-400, Unit Leaders' 
Handbook for Environmental Stewardship, or from the field artillery 
environmental handbook referenced in Section I, in order to determine the 
environmental considerations that may affect Paladin training and 
operations. 

E-29. Step 5. Supervise and Evaluate - Leaders should monitor controls to 
ensure effectiveness and whether controls require modification. They should 
ensure the after action review (AAR) process includes an evaluation of 
environmental-related hazards, controls, soldier performance, and leader 
supervision. 



E-12 



Appendix F 

Movement Techniques 

The Paladin howitzer gains its increase in survivability by making 
frequent moves. To make the best use of this ability, soldiers in a Paladin 
platoon must be well trained in various movement techniques in different 
types of terrain. 



PLATOON MOVEMENT 

F-l. The POC controls three howitzer sections in a platoon position that is 
approximately 1,500 X 3,000 meters in area. Operating as a platoon of three 
sections requires a great deal of coordination between the section chiefs and 
the POC. C2 is maximized if a team leader is designated among howitzer 
sections. The senior chief or team leader directs the movement of the other 
sections based on guidance from the platoon leader, platoon sergeant or the 
POC. When the POC sends movement orders to the platoon, the team leader 
is responsible to execute the movement. Although all three howitzers in the 
platoon receive the same movement order, the team leader is responsible for 
leading the way to the new position. 

WING MEN" CONCEPT 

F-2. Two Paladin sections or "wingmen" maneuver by orienting off the team 
leader's location. The wingmen orient and disperse from the team leader as 
set forth by unit TSOP or as directed by the team leader. The team leader 
maneuvers and changes the platoon formation based on the factors of M ETT- 
TC. Orientation data may be designated by a direction; front, rear, left or 
right from the team leader, or in relation to the face of a clock. For instance, 
in desert terrain one wingman might be positioned 200 meters to the left and 
300 meters to the rear, and the second wingman positioned 200 meters to the 
right and 300 meters to the rear of the team leader relative to the AOF (see 
Figure F-l). In more restrictive terrain, the distance might be 100 meters 
with one wingman at the 4 o'clock position and the second at the 8 o'clock 
position (see Figure F-2). 



F-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





Wingman 


4 i 


*mT^' Left Flank 


Rear 


^^^00 meters 




/200 meters 


T^- 


' 1 - ^^--"~~^ 


Wingman ^ — 


/ "~ Leader 


300 meters* 


^ / 200 meters ^^^^ 

V ^AOF 


Right Flank 


Front 



Figure F-1. Wingmen Positioned at Left and Right Rear 



F-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 




Wingman 



AOF 



Figure F-2. Wingmen Positioned at 4 and 8 O'clock 

PAIRED MOVEMENT 

F-3. The battery commander may decide to move his battery in pairs of 
howitzers. With this technique, one POC assumes control of two pair and the 
other POC controls one pair. The paired concept is similar to the platoon 
movement except only two sections are moving together. As with platoon 
movement, it is advantageous to assign a team leader to control each pair. 
This concept simplifies the C2 and ensures that proper separation is 
maintained within a pair. As with platoon operations, both howitzers in the 
pair receive the same movement order and the team leader leads the way to 
the new position. The single wingman maneuvers and orients off the team 
leader's location as in platoon operations. 

MOVEMENT METHODS 

F-4. The factors of M ETT-TC call for different types of movement techniques, 
tied to different levels of centralized versus decentralized control of the 
howitzers by the POC. The following techniques can be altered as the tactical 
situation and level of training within the unit dictate. 



F-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



DESERT/TUNDRA 

F-5. The unobstructed open spaces of a desert environment offer the easiest 
methods of conducting survivability movement. Any method can be used in 
conjunction with decentralized control to maximize dispersion and use of the 
terrain. The team leader, followed by his wingmen, can disperse in the firing 
area (Figure F-3A), they can move from firing area to firing area as in the 
quadrant method (Figure F-3B), or they can displace to a new firing area 
within the PA. The movement should be varied so actions do not become 
predictable. 



/v 

/750 meter^v ^Sj" - 


III\ 


/I 


in\ 




\ll 


IV/ 


\ll 


^^750 meters^ ttm J 

W7 


(Dispersion in the 750 meter radius firing area) 

A 


(Three sections move to new quadrant within 750 meter radius 
firing area) 

B 



Figure F-3. Survivability Movement 



TEMPERATE/FORESTED 



URBAN 



F-6. The temperate/lightly forested environment, such as is found in most of 
Western Europe and much of the United States, calls for an intermediate 
level of centralization. As terrain features may subdivide platoon areas, the 
senior COS can find locations for his wingmen within his area, based on 
guidance from the GSG or platoon sergeant. The wingmen concept can be 
used here also, but since the COS will want to use all available cover and 
concealment, the orientation may have to be more flexible. For example, 
guidance from the team leader to his wingmen might be: "Follow me to the 
next tree line, and take a positions 200 meters left and right of me in the tree 
line." 



F-7. The urban environment calls for the most centralized control of any 
environment. Since maneuverability may be limited, the GSG should 
reconnoiter individual howitzer positions, and brief his chiefs on where they 
are. As time permits, the GSG can take the chiefs to each of their firing 
positions in the PA in the GSG's HMMWV. The GSG should report to the 



F-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



POC and point out on the PA diagram where all of the individual howitzer 
positions are located. 

MOVEMENT TO CONTACT 

F-8. In a fast moving situation such as a movement to contact, movement 
may not fit neatly into the categories of "tactical" or "survivability" moves. 
Units should establish TSOPs for how to deploy in these situations. Those 
TSOPs should allow for swift emplacement from the column march. The 
wingmen concept can be useful here also. 

MOVEMENT TTP 

F-9. This section provides a short description of movement options and 
associated TTPs. The list of options is not all-inclusive. FM 71-123, Tactics 
and Techniques for Combined Arms Heavy Forces: Armored Brigade, 
Battalion/ Task Force, and Company/ Team, Appendix A; FM 17-98-1, Scout 
Leader's Handbook; and FM 17-15, Tank Platoon provide additional 
assistance and reference for movement and survivability in combat. They also 
discuss TTPs for navigation, TLPs, and C2 during movement. 

F-10. When selecting movement options leaders must consider METT-TC: 

• Mission. What are the battalion, battery, and platoon missions? What is 
the task force commander's intent? What are the essential tasks for this 
mission? 

• Enemy. Where is the enemy and what size force does he have? What are 
his intentions? Will he attack, defend, or delay? What are his strengths 
and weaknesses? 

• Terrain and Weather. Where can we observe and fire at the enemy? 
Where are covered and concealed routes and positions? Where are the 
obstacles and what kind are they? How are they bypassed? Where is the 
key terrain, and how can it be used to support the mission? Where are the 
avenues of approach? How fast can we move, and how much space does 
terrain and other unit formations give us? 

• Troops (and other assets). What are the conditions of personnel and 
vehicles? What is the status of ammunition, fuel, and supplies? How 
much sleep can we get? Who is best able to do a specific task? What other 
assets are available to support our mission? What are other batteries and 
platoons doing? 

• Time Available. What was the SP time? What was the line of departure 
time? How much time is available for planning, preparation, and 
movement? 

• Civil considerations. Are there any restrictions or hindrances to 
movement? 

F-ll. In addition to the factors of METT-TC, the movement options selected 
must take the following into account: 

• The battalion displacement options (the organization and sequencing of 
moves) discussed in FM 6-20-1: 

■ By unit- the battalion displaces with all elements moving at once. 



F-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



■ By echelon- the battalion displaces in 2-3 groupings. 

■ By battery- each firing battery moves only after the preceding battery 
has completed its move and is in place. 

■ By element- the battalion displaces by individual elements as 
recommended by the battery commanders. 

In some cases, battalion may influence movement to maintain control of 
fires especially for employment of special munitions or mass missions. 

Maintaining the communications flow (electronic line of sight) from 
battalion TOC/F DC to the platoons to the guns. Extended ranges between 
battalion and platoons may require the use of battalion retransmission 
capability. 

Need to maintain survey/navigation accuracy on board the howitzer. 

Survi vabi I ity/Defensi bi I ity 



FORMATIONS 



F-12. The unit can use, but is not restricted to four basic formations: column, 
wedge, box, and line. Leaders should select the formations most appropriate 
for the situation unless directed otherwise. Formations are not rigid. Terrain 
and common sense will frequently dictate needed changes. There is no set 
location for leaders. Key personnel must be tactically positioned in locations 
to best provide C2. Typically, the GSG is positioned forward to reconnoiter 
and provide early warning to the unit. The position of vehicles and support 
elements are dictated by M ETT-TC. 

F-13. Consider the following formations (see Figure F-4 through F-7) as a 
general guide: 



F-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PLT \ 
Trains 




PLT 

SGT 






m* 



POC 



PLT 
LDR 



"^Tjj^ 1 



Provides good security and maximum fires to the flanks 
Facilitates control 

Facilitates deployment into other formations 
Facilitates rapid movement 



Figure F-4. Column 



F-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



^ «* 




PLT 

Trains 

PLT 
SGT 





POC 




PLT 
LDR 

Mi " 



ra 





■ Permits excellent fire to the front 
and good fire to the flanks 

■ Facilitates control 

■ Provides good protection for the POC 



Figure F-5. Wedge 



F-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





PLT 

Trains PLT 

SGT 






POC 




PLT 
LDR 




■JTF^O 



More difficult to maintain than the wedge 
Provides best protection for the POC 
Provides all around firepower coverage 



Figure F-6. Box 



F-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Permits maximum firepower to the front 
Is the most difficult to control 
Is less secure due to lack of depth 



PLT 

Trains 




POC 



PLT 

SGT 









j * 



PLT 
LDR 




Figure F-7. Line 



F-10 



Appendix G 

Paladin Firing Safety 



GENERAL 



G-l. Firing safety is paramount and every secondary independent check 
(verification) is designed to ensure rounds fired impact and detonate on the 
desired target. Failure to conduct secondary independent checks is the 
primary contributing factor to M109A6 Paladin firing incidents. Conducting 
procedurally correct crew drills can help prevent firing incidents from 
occurring. The most frequent types of firing incidents during Paladin live-fire 
operations that can be prevented by secondary independent checks are: 

• Firing at load elevation. 

• Degraded Operations (Appendix A) - the leadership must be proactive 
under degraded operations. 

• Charge error. 

Target location and verification of target location are important segments in 
fire mission processing as well. The POC has the responsibility to verify 
target location at the battery level. Targets must be physically plotted and 
checked to ensure they plot safely and do not violate any FSCM. The 
following techniques aid the FDC in ensuring that all target grids are cleared 
for safe engagement. 

BOXED SAFETY 

G-2. Safety is computed I AW the standards of FM 6-40 and can be derived 
from automated range safety. The FDO computes safety from the center of 
radius grid used in the move order. The safety data is valid for howitzers 
firing within a 750 meter radius of the surveyed grid. Using the range fan, 
the FDO maximizes his safety box by determining his own limits within an 
approved impact area. The left and right limits are input on the move order 
message format. The FDO determines minimum and maximum quadrants. 
The minimum and maximum quadrants and charge specific are sent to the 
howitzers by digital means on a SYS;PTM. The section chief enters the data 
into the AFCS. Min QE is entered into the AFCS. Maximum QE is input as 
maximum tube elevation. The FDO must specify charge using this technique. 
He must select the optimum charge to fire based on the tactical situation. 
Every mission sent to the howitzer must be checked, and the specified charge 
must be sent down to the howitzers. The POC must check and resolve 
intervening crests. (See Figure G-l.) 



G-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



750 Meter Radius 





NOTE: BOXED SAFETY IS SIMILAR TO REGULAR FA SAFETY WITH THE FOLLOWING 
EXCEPTIONS: NOT REQUIRED TO USE RANGE SAFETY CARD, USE SURVEYED MOVE ORDER 
GRID WITHIN TRAINING AREA WITH A 750 METER RADIUS, CHARGE RESTRICTED. 



Figure G-1. Boxed Safety 

UNBOXED SAFETY 

G-3. This technique requires the FDO to shrink the perimeter of the selected 
impact area 300 meters or IAW local range safety regulations (which ever is 
safest) to account for PEs. The minimum quadrant to fire is computed using 
the lowest optimum charge to the closest minimum range of the impact area. 
The POC transmits min QE to the howitzer using the SYS;PTM format, and 
the COS inputs min QE into the AFCS. The FDO does not send the howitzers 
a maximum QE. Not sending a maximum QE, allows the platoon greater 
flexibility to engage targets within their sectors and enables firing of different 
charges per mission. The FDO determines the left and right azimuth limits 
using the outermost edges of the shrunken impact area. The limits are sent to 
the howitzers on the movement order format. All data is safe as long as 
howitzers remain within a 750 meter radius of the occupation grid. (See 
Figure G-2.) The following are key points in unboxed safety: 

• MinQE is computed using the lowest optimum charge. 

• Left and right limits are sent on the movement order format. 

• Multiple charges can be fired. 

• Impact area is reduced by 300 meters or IAW local range safety 
regulations (which ever is safest) to allow for probable errors. 

• Howitzer pairs work within a 750 meter radius. 



G-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



300 Meters 



Left Limit 




Right Limit 



750 Meter Radius 



NOTE: MINIMUM RANGE IS COMPUTED FOR LOWEST OPTIMUM CHARGE. GRID FIRED 
MUST BE VERIFIED BY AT LEAST THREE INDEPENDENT CHECKS (FO/FIST, BATTALION FDC, 
POC). HOWITZERS INPUT MIN QE. LEFT AND RIGHT LIMITS ON MOVE ORDER. MULTIPLE 
CHARGES CAN BE FIRED. 



Figure G-2. Unboxed Safety 

COMBAT SAFETY 

G-4. Combat safety (see Figure G-3) is similar to unboxed safety with the 
following exceptions: 

• The min QE is computed to the minimum range line (i.e., FLOT/brigade 
coordinated fire line (CFL)). 

• Left and right limits are computed to the brigade boundaries and sent in 
the move order. 

• The POC must check intervening crests. 



G-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



CFL 
PL MURPHY. 



PL HOGAN 



3ID PL JOHNSON pLCOLE 



Left Limit 




Minimum Range Line 



Figure G-3. Combat Safety 

ILLUMINATION SAFETY 

G-5. Illumination safety (see Figure G-4) is similar to boxed safety and is 
computed using an approved safety box in an impact area. Computations are 
made in accordance with the procedures in FM 6-40. The FDO computes 
minimum and maximum quadrants. Maximum QE is computed using range 
to impact. The POC transmits the calculated data/safety "T" to the howitzers 
via SYS;PTM. The chief records the data but does not enter the safety "T" 
limits into the AFCS. The key points are: 

• Similar to boxed safety. 

• Illumination safety "T" is sent to guns via SYS;PTM. 

• Howitzer section chief does not enter Safety "T" data into AFCS, but 
records the data. 



G-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



750 Meter Radius 





Figure G-4. Illumination Safety 



G-5 



Appendix H 

Sample Gunner's Qualification Test 

This gunner's qualification test is offered as a guide. Paladin units can 
modify it to fit specific training needs. It is a modification to the gunner's 
test in FM 6-50 (minus standard angle & elbow telescope) to make it 
Paladin specific. 



USE OF TEST 

H-l. This appendix presents a test that evaluates the 13B soldier in the 
performance of the principal duties of the gunner. This test applies to the 
M109A6 Paladin weapon system and has the following purposes: 

• The tasks in this test should be used as a training tool. The soldier should 
practice each task under close supervision to acquire the degree of 
proficiency required by the standards stated in this test. 

• This test can bolster the esprit and motivation of the soldier through 
recognition of individual proficiency. The artillery clasp for the 
marksmanship badge will be awarded upon successful completion of this 
test (see Army regulation (AR) 672-5-1, Military Awards). 

This test will be given I AW unit training requirements. 

STANDARDS OF PRECISION 

H-2. The soldier will be required to perform the tasks IAW the following 
standards: 

• Settings must be exact. 

• Bubbles in leveling vials must be centered exactly. 

• The cross hair of the reticle pattern on the pantel must be aligned exactly 
on the line of the collimator (or offset correctly to counter the effects of 
displacement), center mass of the compass or reflector of the aiming 
circle, or on the top left edge of the DAP. 

• The final motion of the elevating handwheel must always be in the 
direction that raises the cannon tube. 

• Azimuth knobs must be rotated so as to approach the aiming point from 
left to right. 

• The appropriate deflection correction must beset on the gunner's aid. 

• Correct terms must be used. 

• Correct hand and arm signals must be used. 

• If any questions arise, refer to the appropriate TM and then toFM 6-50. 



H-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



ASSISTANCE 

H-3. The soldier will not receive assistance on the individual tasks except as 
specified for those tasks that require it. If the soldier fails any task because of 
the fault of the assistant, that task will be retested. 

TASK SCORING 

H-4. Scoring will be in accordance with the standards for each task. A "no go" 
will be given if any of the standards of precision or the standards of a specific 
task are not met, and points will be awarded. If the soldier receives all "go" 
ratings for the subtasks, the score for the task will depend on the speed of 
execution. 

QUALIFICATION SCORES 

H-5. Scores determining the qualification status of the gunner are shown in 
Table H-l. 

Table H-1. Paladin Gunner Qualification Scores 



Classification 


Score 


Expert Gunner 


92-87 


Gunner First Class 


86-77 


Gunner Second Class 


76-67 


Unqualified 


66-0 



EQUIPMENT, PERSONNEL, AND SITE REQUIREMENTS 

H-6. Successful administration of the test is enhanced by efficient 
organization of the test site. The test site will consist of the following: 

• An in-briefing station. 

• A chief examiner. 

• An examiner for each station and an assistant if required. 

• Six howitzers in the firing position with basic issue items (B 1 1 s). 

• An aiming circle with communications. 

• Two direct fire targets, 600 meters in front of the test site and 50 meters 
apart. 

• At least one DAP. 

H-7. Soldiers will use the round-robin method to move from station to station. 
The examiner will remain at his station. Each examiner will have a clip board 
and stopwatch. 

H-8. The chief examiner will brief each soldier on the test site and what tasks 
are on each howitzer. He will explain the scoring system and answer any 
questions. 

H-9. A test outline is shown in Table H-2. A sample grading sheet is shown in 
Table H-3. 



H-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table H-2. Test Outline 



Task 
Number 


Subject 


Elements 


Points 

per 
Element 


Maximum 
Credit 


1 


Lay the Howitzer for Initial Direction of Fire 
using the Aiming Circle 


1 


4 


4 


2 


Lay the Howitzer for Initial Direction of Fire 
usi ng the M 2 Compass 


1 


4 


4 


3 


Lay the Howitzer for Initial Direction of Fire 
using a DAP 


1 


4 


4 


4 


Lay Another Howitzer Reciprocally 


1 


4 


4 


5 


Refer the Piece 


1 


4 


4 


6 


Align the Collimator 


1 


4 


4 


7 


Check the Boresight of the Pantel with the 
M 140 Alignment Device 


1 


4 


4 


8 


Boresight the Howitzer (Pantel) using a DAP 


1 


4 


4 


9 


Fire Mission 


5 


4 


20 


10 


Direct Fire 


4 


4 


16 


11 


Lay the Howitzer for Quadrant with the 
Range Quadrant 


1 


4 


4 


12 


Measure the Quadrant with the Range 
Quadrant 


1 


4 


4 


13 


Initialize theAFCS 


1 


4 


4 


14 


Prepare to Fire using theAFCS 


1 


4 


4 


15 


Conduct a Fire Mission using the AFCS 


1 


4 


4 


16 


Perform Direct Fire using the AFCS 


1 


4 


4 






Total Points Possible: 92 



H-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table H-3. Sample Grading Sheet 



Gunner's N 


a me 


Section 


Unit 


Section Chief 


Date 


Weapon: M109A6 


Task 


Points Achieved 


Taskl 


Lay the Howitzer for Initial Direction 
of Fire using the Aiming Circle 


No Go =0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 2 


Lay the Howitzer for Initial Direction 
of F i re usi ng the M 2 Compass 


No Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 3 


Lay the howitzer for Initial Direction 
of Fire using a DAP 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 4 


Lay Another Howitzer Reciprocally 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 


Task 5 


Refer the Piece 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 6 


Align the Collimator 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 7 


Check the Boresight of thePantel 
with the M 140 Alignment Device 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 8 


Boresight the Howitzer (Pantel) using 
a DAP 


No Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 9A 


Fire Mission 


No Go =0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 9B 


Fire Mission 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 9C 


Fire Mission 


No Go =0 Points/Time - 


Points 


Task 9D 


Fire Mission 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 9E 


Fire Mission 


NoGo=0 Points/Time 


Points 


Task 10A 


Direct Fire 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 


Task 10B 


Direct Fire 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 


Task IOC 


Direct Fire 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 


Task 10D 


Direct Fire 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 


Task 11 


Lay the H owitzer for Quadrant with 
the Range Quadrant 


No Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 12 


Measure the Quadrant with the 
Range Quadrant 


No Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 13 


Initialize theAFCS 


N o Go = Points, Go =4 Points 


Points 


Task 14 


Prepare for Firing Using theAFCS 


N o Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 15 


Conduct a Fire Mission using the 
AFCS 


No Go =0 Points/Time = 


Points 


Task 16 


Perform Direct Fire using the AFCS 


NoGo = Points/Time 


Points 




Total Points 





H-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASKS 

TASK 1 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-10. Lay the howitzer for initial direction of fire using the aiming circle. 



H-ll. Soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon tube 
50 mils off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit TSOP). Bubbles will be 
level, and special corrections at 0. An assistant examiner will operate the 
aiming circle, which will be located 50 meters to the left front of the howitzer. 
Soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready. The assistant 
examiner commands, "NUMBER 1 ADJUST, AIMING POINT THIS 
INSTRUMENT, DEFLECTION (XXXX)". 



H-12. Time will start on the last digit of deflection of the initial command. 
Time will stop when the assistant examiner states that number 1 is laid. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B soldier's training publication 
(STP) (soldier's manual). 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-29 


4 


30-34 


3 


35-39 


2 


40-50 


1 


51+ 






H-13. Score Example: If the soldier performs Task 1 in 29.59 seconds, he 
scores 4 points. If the soldier performs Task 1 in 50.59 seconds, he scores 1 
point. 



H-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 2 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-14. Lay the howitzer for initial direction of fire using the M 2 compass. 



H-15. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position. The cannon tube is 
50 mils off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit SOP). Bubbles will be level 
and special corrections at 0. An assistant examiner will be at the M2 compass 
located 10 meters to the left front of the howitzer. The soldier positions 
himself as the gunner and announces when ready. The assistant examiner 
commands, "NUMBER 1 ADJ UST, AIMING POINT THIS INSTRUMENT, 
DEFLECTION (XXXX)". 



H-16. Time will start on the last digit of the deflection of the initial command. 
Time will stop when the assistant examiner announces that number 1 is laid. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-17 


4 


18-20 


3 


21-23 


2 


24-25 


1 


26+ 






H-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 3 



Conditions 



H-17. Lay the howitzer for initial direction of fire using a DAP. 



H-18. Soldier is given a howitzer in firing position with the cannon tube 50 
mils off the AOF and at loading elevation (unit SOP). Bubbles will be level 
and special corrections at 0. The soldier positions himself as gunner and 
announces when ready. The examiner commands, "NUMBER 1 ADJUST, 
AIMING POINT (NAME OF OBJECT AND LOCATION), DEFLECTION 
(XXXX)". 



Time 



H-19. Time will start on the last digit of the deflection of the initial command. 
Time will stop when the examiner states that number 1 is laid. 



Scoring 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no- 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-17 


4 


18-20 


3 


21-23 


2 


24-25 


1 


26+ 






H-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 4 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-20. Lay another howitzer reciprocally. 



H-21. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position and already laid 
for initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special corrections at 0. 
The pantel will be 50 mils off the howitzer to be laid. An assistant examiner 
will act as the gunner of the howitzer to be laid. The soldier positions himself 
as gunner and states when ready. The examiner will say "BEGIN". 



H-22. Time will start when the examiner says, "BEGIN". The time will stop 
when the gunner says, "NUMBER 2 IS LAID". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-12 


4 


13-15 


3 


16-18 


2 


19-20 


1 


21+ 






H-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 5 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-23. Refer the piece. 



H-24. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position that has already 
been laid for initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special 
corrections at 0. The pantel will be oriented on the collimator. An assistant 
examiner will be operating the aiming circle 50 meters to the howitzer's left 
front. The soldier positions himself as the gunner and announces when ready. 
The assistant examiner commands, "NUMBER 1 REFER, AIMING POINT 
THIS INSTRUMENT". 



H-25. Time will start on the word refer. Time will stop when the last digit of 
deflection is announced. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-12 


4 


13-15 


3 


16-18 


2 


19-20 


1 


21+ 






H-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 6 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-26. Align the collimator. 



H-27. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position that has already 
been laid on the initial direction of fire. Bubbles will be level and special 
corrections at 0. An assistant examiner will be posted at the collimator, 4-15 
meters off the howitzer's left front. The collimator will be on the tripod but 
will not be sighted in on the pantel and will not have its legs sandbagged. The 
soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready. The examiner 
will say "BEGIN". 



H-28. Time will start when the examiner says "BEGIN". Time will stop when 
the gunner states that the collimator is set. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-17 


4 


18-20 


3 


21-23 


2 


24-25 


1 


26+ 






H-10 



TASK 7 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-29. Check theboresight of the pantel with the M 140 alignment device. 



H-30. The soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position, with level 
bubbles and special corrections at 0. The cannon tube will be at mils 
elevation, and the azimuth counter will be set at 1600. The soldier will be 
provided with an M140 alignment device. The soldier positions himself as 
gunner and announces when ready. The examiner will say "BEGIN". 



H-31. Time will start when the examiner says "BEGIN" and will stop when 
the gunner states that boresight is either verified or not verified. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-17 


4 


18-20 


3 


21-23 


2 


24-25 


1 


26+ 






H-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 8 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-32. Boresight the howitzer (pantel) using a DAP. 



H-33. The soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. Bubbles will 
level and special corrections at 0. The cannon tube will be aligned on the 
DAP, but the pantel will be aligned 10 mils off the DAP. Boresight will be 5 
mils off, and the cover will be on the detent shaft. The soldier will be provided 
with the tools needed to adjust the sight. The soldier positions himself and 
announces when ready. The examiner will say "BEGIN". 



H-34. Time will start when the examiner says "BEGIN" and will stop when 
the gunner states that the howitzer is boresighted. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-45 


4 


46-60 


3 


61-89 


2 


90-120 


1 


121+ 






H-12 



TASK 9A 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-35. Fire Mission. (Note: Tasks 9A through 9E involve one continuous fire 
mission). 



H-36. The soldier will be given a howitzer in the firing position. The howitzer 
is laid, DAP is identified, and the collimator is emplaced. The pantel is 
aligned on the collimator, bubbles are level, and special corrections at 0. The 
cannon tube is oriented on the primary direction of fire elevated to 315 mils. 
The soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready. The 
examiner commands, "FIRE MISSION, PLATOON ADJ UST, NUMBER 1, 1 
ROUND, SHELL HE, CHARGE(XX), FUZE QUICK, DEFLECTION 3225, 
QUADRANT 315". 



H-37. Time will start on the last digit of quadrant and will stop when the 
gunner says "READY". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-8 


4 


9-10 


3 


11-12 


2 


13-14 


1 


15+ 






H-13 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 9B 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-38. Fire Mission. (Note: Tasks 9A through 9E involve one continuous fire 
mission). 



H-39. Continuation from 9A. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "SPECIAL CORRECTIONS, RIGHT 4, DEFLECTION 3194, 
QUADRANT 315". 



H-40. Time will start on the last digit of quadrant and will stop when the 
gunner says "READY". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-9 


4 


10-11 


3 


12-13 


2 


14-15 


1 


16+ 






H-14 



TASK9C 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-41. Fire Mission. (Note: Tasks 9A through 9E involve one continuous fire 
mission). 



H-42. Continuation from 9B. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
cancels special corrections, says that the collimater has fallen down, and 
directs the gunner to use the aiming posts. The examiner commands, 
"DEFLECTION 3180, QUADRANT 315". 



H-43. Time will start on the last digit of quadrant and will stop when the 
gunner says "READY". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-10 


4 


11-12 


3 


13-14 


2 


15-16 


1 


17+ 






H-15 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 9D 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-44. Fire Mission. (Note: Tasks 9A through 9E involve one continuous fire 
mission). 



H-45. Continuation from 9C. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "DEFLECTION 3230, QUADRANT 315". 



H-46. Time will start on the last digit of quadrant and will stop when the 
gunner says "READY". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-9 


4 


10-11 


3 


12-13 


2 


14-15 


1 


16+ 






H-16 



TASK 9E 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-47. Fire Mission. (Note: Tasks 9A through 9E involve one continuous fire 
mission). 



H-48. Continuation from 9D. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "GAS (waits for the soldier to mask), DEFLECTION 3242, 
QUADRANT 315". 



H-49. Time will start on the last digit of quadrant and will stop when the 
gunner says "READY". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-9 


4 


10-11 


3 


12-13 


2 


14-15 


1 


16+ 






H-17 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 10A 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-50. Direct Fire. (Note: Tasks 10A through 10D involve one continuous fire 
mission). The central or reticle method of sighting may be used. Only the one 
man/one sight technique of direct fire will be used. 



H-51. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position. The howitzer is 
laid and thepantel is oriented on the collimator. Bubbles are level and special 
corrections at 0. The cannon tube is at mils elevation. The soldier will be 
told which direct fire target he is to engage. The soldier positions himself as 
gunner and announces when ready. The examiner commands, "FIRE 
MISSION, TARGET THAT (XXX), (direction), SHELL HE, CHARGE (XX), 
FUZE QUICK, LEAD RIGHT 15 Ml LS, RANGE 600, FIRE AT WILL". 



H-52. Time will start when the examiner states "FIRE AT WILL" and will 
stop when the gunner says "FIRE". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-9 


4 


10-11 


3 


12-13 


2 


14-15 


1 


16+ 






H-18 



TASK 10B 



Conditions 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-53. Direct Fire. (Note: Tasks 10A through 10D involve one continuous fire 
mission). The central or reticle method of sighting may be used. Only the one 
man/one sight technique of direct fire will be used. 



H-54. Continuation from 10A. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "RIGHT 5, ADD 100". 



Time 



H-55. Time will start when the examiner states "ADD 100" and will stop 
when the gunner says "F I RE ". 



Scoring 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-4 


4 


5-6 


3 


7-8 


2 


9-10 


1 


11+ 






H-19 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK IOC 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-56. Direct Fire. (Note: Tasks 10A through 10D involve one continuous fire 
mission). The central or reticle method of sighting may be used. Only the one 
man/one sight technique of direct fire will be used. 



H-57. Continuation from 10B. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "LEFT 10, ADD 100". 



H-58. Time will start when the examiner states "ADD 100" and will stop 
when the gunner says "F I RE ". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-4 


4 


5-6 


3 


7-8 


2 


9-10 


1 


11+ 






H-20 



TASK 10D 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



H-59. Direct Fire. (Note: Tasks 10A through 10D involve one continuous fire 
mission). The central or reticle method of sighting may be used. Only the one 
man/one sight technique of direct fire will be used. 



H-60. Continuation from IOC. Soldier announces when ready. The examiner 
commands, "LEFT 15, DROP 100". 



H-61. Time will start when the examiner states "DROP 100" and will stop 
when the gunner says "F I RE ". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-4 


4 


5-6 


3 


7-8 


2 


9-10 


1 


11+ 






H-21 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 11 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-62. Lay the howitzer for quadrant with the range quadrant. 



H-63. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon 
tube at mils elevation. Bubbles will be level and special corrections at 0. 
The soldier positions himself as the gunner and announces when ready. The 
examiner commands, "QUADRANT 215". 



H-64. Time will start when the examiner states "QUADRANT 215" and will 
stop when the gunner states "SET". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-8 


4 


9-10 


3 


11-12 


2 


13-14 


1 


15+ 






H-22 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 12 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-65. Measure the quadrant with a range quadrant. 



H-66. The soldier is given a howitzer in the firing position with the cannon 
tube at 245 mils. The range quadrant is at mils and the cross level bubble is 
centered. The soldier positions himself as gunner and announces when ready. 
The exami ner states, "BEGIN ". 



H-67. Time will start when the examiner states "BEGIN" and will stop when 
the gunner states "QUADRANT 245". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-8 


4 


9-10 


3 


11-12 


2 


13-14 


1 


15+ 






H-23 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 13 



Conditions 



Standards 



Scoring 



H-68. Initialize the AFCS. 



H-69. The soldier is given a howitzer parked within 1 meter of a SCP. The 
soldier will receive data for the SCP and initialization data. The soldier 
positions himself as COS and announces when ready. The examiner will state 
"BEGIN". 



H-70. In order to receive a "go" the soldier must perform the initialization 
IAWTM 9-2350-314-10. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 

go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, score 4 points. 







H-24 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 14 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-71. Prepare for firing using the AFCS. 



H-72. The soldier is given a howitzer, aligned along the AOF, and in travel 
lock. The "Emplace" screen is displayed on the AFCS. The soldier positions 
himself as COS and announces when ready. The examiner will state 
"BEGIN". 



H-73. Time will start when the examiner states "BEGIN" and stops when the 
soldier sends the updated piece status. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-1:30 


4 


1:31-1:40 


3 


1:41-1:50 


2 


1:51-2:00 


1 


2:01+ 






H-25 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 15 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-74. Conduct a fire mission using the AFCS. 



H-75. The soldier is given a howitzer at loading elevation. The soldier 
positions himself as COS and announces when ready. The examiner has a 
digital call for fire transmitted to the AFCS. 



H-76. Time will start when the when the fire mission is received at the AFCS 
and stops when the howitzer is laid on the target. 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-15 


4 


15.1-16.0 


3 


16.1-20.0 


2 


20.1-22.0 


1 


22.1+ 






H-26 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 16 



Conditions 



Time 



Scoring 



H-77. Perform direct fire using the AFCS. 



H-78. The soldier is given a howitzer, aligned on the azimuth of fire and out 
of travel lock. The soldier is shown which target he is to engage and an 
assistant examiner will be provided to lay for deflection. The soldier positions 
himself as COS and announces when ready. The examiner will state 
"BEGIN". 



H-79. Time will start when the examiner says "BEGIN" and stops when the 
soldier states "SET". 





Go 


No Go 


Standards of precision (Paragraph H-2) were met. (If 
applicable.) 






Correct steps were followed to complete the task in 
accordance with 13B STP. 






If steps above were not followed, soldier receives a "no 
go" and points. 

If soldier received a "go" on steps above, use the chart 
below to determi ne score. 







Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


-20 


4 


20.1-22.0 


3 


22.1-23.0 


2 


23.1-30.0 


1 


30.1 






H-27 



Appendix I 

Paladin Howitzer Section Evaluation 

This section evaluation is offered as a guide. Paladin units can modify it 
to fit specific training needs. 



SECTION EVALUATION SCORE SHEET 






Secti on/Battc 
Date 

Chief of Sect 
Score 

Phase 

1 

II 

III 


;ry 


Maximum 
Allowable 
Points 

(60) 

hase 1 ) 

(225) 

80 
25 
25 
25 
25 
15 
30 

(456) 

20 

51 

100 

200 

30 

55 

Conti 


Points 
Awarded 




on 




Task Description 

Written Test 

(30 questions at 2 points each, developed by the unit. 

Responsibility of the master gunner. See sample in P 

Preparation for Firing Operations 
(Tactical Assembly Area Operations) 

1. PMCS/PCI 

2. Disassemble Breech 

3. Assemble Breech 

4. Micrometer Test 

5. E nd for E nd Test 

6. Weapons 

7. AFCS Initialization 

Total Points Awarded for Phase II 

Occupation 

8. Tactical Move 

9. E mergency M ission 

10. Deli berate Occupation 

11. Fire Missions 

12. Misfire Procedures 

13. Survivability Move 

Total Points Awarded for Phase 1 1 1 
































nued 



1-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



SECTION EVALUATION SCORE SHEET (CONTINUED) 






Phase 
IV 

V 

VI 


Task Description 

Degraded Operations 

14. Occupation 

15. U se of Conveyor 

16. Fire Missions 

17. Direct Fire 

Total Points Awarded for Phase 

NBC Operations 

18. Assume MOP P4 

19. Occupation 

20. Fire Mission 

21. M 256 Kit 

Total Points Awarded for Phase 

Night Operations 

22. Occupation 

23. Night Operations 

Maximum Point Total 
Section Total 


IV 
V 


Maximum 
Allowable 
Points 

(230) 

80 

10 

100 

40 

(55) 

10 

20 

15 
10 

(130) 

30 

100 

(1156) 


Points 































1-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

PHASE I: SAMPLE WRITTEN TEST 

1-1. The test consists of 30 multiple choice and true/false questions worth 2 points each for a 
maxi mu m score of 60 poi nts. 

1. WHAT IS THE NUMBER 1 MAN'S Fl RST ACTION WHEN CHECKFIRE IS CALLED, AND 
AROUND ISINTHE TUBE? 

A. ATTEMPTTOFIRE TWO ADDITIONAL Tl MES 

B. CEASE ALL ACTIONSAND ANNOUNCE CHECKFIRE 

C. CALL HIMSELF OUT OF THE MISSION 

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE 

2. DURING FIRE MISSIONS, PRIOR TO FIRING, WHAT MUST BE DONE WITH UNUSED 
POWDER INCREMENTS? 

A. THEY MUST BE STORED IN THE POWDER PIT 

B. THEY ARE STORED IN THE PROPELLANT CANISTER WITH THE LID SECURED 

C. INCREMENTS ARE HANDED OUT THE SIDE Wl N DOW AND STORED IN THE 
AMMUNITION VEHICLE 

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE 

3. THE COS KNOWS HIS NAVIGATION SUBSYSTEM IS BEING PLGR AIDED 
WH E N . 

A. THE "A" IS DISPLAYED IN FIELD #70N THE DISPLAY 

B. THE "A" IS NOT DISPLAYED IN FIELD #7 ON THE DISPLAY 

C. FIELD #7 DISPLAYS "CMD" 

D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

4. THE LEAD FILTER INTAKE SYSTEM MUST BE USED 



A. WHILE FIRING SMOKE ROUNDS 

B. WHEN FIRINGTHE M203CHARGE 

C. NOT NECESSARYTO USE AT TEMPERATURES LESS THAN 60 DEGREES 

D. DURING ALL FIRING 

5. DURING A "FIRE WHEN READY" FIRE MISSION, THE ONLY WHITE SOFT KEY 
LABELS THAT WILL BE AVAILABLE ARE , AND . 

A. READY, INVENTORY, AND ABORT C. SHOT, CHECK, AND ABORT 

B. SHOT, CLEAR, AND EOM D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

6. MUST BE ENTERED I NTO THE AFCS AS THE LOADING ELEVATION. 

A. MAX QE ON THE SAFETY -T C. 299MILS 

B. Ml N QE ON THE SAFETY -T D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

7. THE "MAXELEVATION MENU" HAS THREE AVAILABLE ENTRY OPTIONS. WHICH 
OPTION IS USEDTO INPUTTHE MAX QE FROM THE SAFETY-T? 

A. USE TUBE POSITION C. MAX QE ENTRY 



1-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



B. TYPENEWVALUE D. USE DEFAULT VALUE (1333) 

8. THE TOLERANCE FOR Dl RECTION VERI FICATION WITH THE M2 COMPASS 
IS MILS. 

A. 50 MILS C. 100 MILS 

B.10MILS D.20MILS 

9. WHEN SHOULDTHE PROPELLANT TEMPERATURE BE UPDATED INTO THE AFCS? 

A. AT LEAST EVERY 2 HOURS C. EVERY 20 MINUTES 

B.ONLY DURING INITIALIZATION D. ONLY WHEN DIRECTED BY POC 

10. WHEN CONDUCTING DIRECTION VERIFICATION WITH THE M2 COMPASS, THE 
MEASURED AZIMUTH SHOULD BE COMPAREDTO ON THE DISPLAY. 

A. THE "AOF" C.THE "HEADING" ON THE DISPLAY 

B.THE "GUN TARGET LINE" D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

11. THE M577A1 FUZE MAY BE USED ON THE M107HE PROJ ECTILE, SET AT PD 
ACTION. 

A. TRUE B. FALSE 

12. IAWFM 3-09.70, A VERI FICATION MISSION MUST BE CONDUCTED WHEN 



A. AFTER INITIALIZATION 

B. DURING LIVE FIRE 

C. WHEN THERE IS A SIGNI FICANT CHANGE IN THE DATABASE 

D. BOTH A.ANDC. 

E. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

13. DURING A HIPSHOOTTHE COS MUST VERIFY HIS IMMEDIATE CREST BY 
PRESSING THE KEY ON THE DISPLAY. 

A. "ARRIVE" KEY C. "LOAD" KEY 

B. "ACK"KEY D. "LAY" KEY 

14. DURING AFCS FIRE MISSIONS, PRIOR TO AN NOU NCI NG THE COMMAND TO F I RE, 
THE COS MUST VERIFY THATTHE ACTUAL AND COM MANDED DF ANDQE ARE 
WITHIN TOLERANCE, THE LAY KEY I S BACKLIT, AND . 

A. THE TRAVEL LOCK IS UP 

B. THE GUN-DRIVE SERVO LIGHT IS LIT 

C. THE PROMPT "WARNING TUBE IS NOT IN LAY POSITION" IS NOT DISPLAYED 

D. ALL OF THE ABOVE 

15. YOU ARE THE NUMBER 1 MAN FOR 3 rd SECTION Fl Rl NG A TWO ROUND WHEN 
READY FIRE MISSION. ON THE SECOND ROUND BEING Fl RED, THE PRI M ER Dl D 
NOT FIRE. YOU HAVE ANNOUNCED MISFIRE TO THE COS. HOW LONG DOESTHE 



1-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

SECTION HAVE TO FIRE THE ROUND AFTER THE ROUND WAS CHAM BE RED? (THE 
TUBE IS WARM.) 

16. THE ALERT "OK TO SHOOT OR MOVE" INDICATES NAVIGATION ALIGNMENT HAS 
REACH E D . 

A. MILS ACCURACY C. 1 Ml L ACCURACY 

B. A FULL 15 MINUTE ALIGNMENT D. 10 METER ACCURACY 

17. IN FIELD #2, "MISSION STATUS" WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MAY APPEAR? 

A.ALN S C. FIRE MISSION 

B. MOVE ORDER D. ALL OF THE ABOVE 

18. THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE RADI US I N A Fl Rl NG AREA IS 250 METERS. 
A. TRUE B. FALSE 

OPERATIONAL MODES FOR THE AFCS "AUTOMATIC FIRE 



19. THERE ARE 


OPERA! 


CONTROL SYSTEM. 




A. NORMAL 


C.3 


B.2 


D. 1 



20. THE GPS/PLGR BATTERY MUST BE REMOVED PRIOR TO 



A. CONDUCTING FIRE MISSIONS C. LAYINGTHE GUN 

B. CONNECTING TO VEHICLE POWER D. PERFORM I NG A ZUPT 

21. THE DOTTED LINE ON THE "EMPLACE Fl RE AREA/POI NT" SCREEN 
REPRESENTS . 

A. CURRENT HEADING C. DESIRED HEADING 

B. FAULTY PIXELSON THE DISPLAY D. GUN-TARGET LINE FOR FPF/PRI 

22. ANYONE THAT SEES AN UNSAFE ACT SHOULD CALL CHECK-FI RE. 
A. TRUE B. FALSE 

23. WHAT DATA MUST BE ENTERED INTO THE AFCS "DIRECT FIRE SCREEN", FOR 
CONDUCTING DIRECT FIRE. 

A. DEFLECTION/QUADRANT C. ELEVATION/RANGE 

B. RANGE/QUADRANT D. RANGE/ UP/DOWN 

24. WHEN THE COS PRESSESTHE LOAD KEY ON THE DISPLAY, THE HOWITZERTUBE 
Wl L L . 

A. AUTOMATICALLY MOVE TOTHE AOF (BASE DEFLECTION) AND THE 
PREDETERMINED ELEVATION. 

B. MOVE TOTHE LOAD ELEVATION ONLY. 



1-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



C. MOVE TO THE PREDETERMINED LOAD ELEVATION, THE AOF (BASE DEFLECTION), 
AND/OR THE COMMANDED DEFLECTION 

D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

25. THE CHIEF OF SECTION'S FIRST ACTION WHEN HIS HOWITZER BECOMES 
DEGRADED IS TO . 

A. CALL HIMSELF OUT C. NOTIFY POC 

B. GO TO AN SCP POINT D. DISREGUARD AND CONTI NUE 

26. A BCS DATA XFER, "PIECE STATUS" MUST BE SENT TO THE POC ON ALL 
OCCUPATIONS. 

A. TRUE B. FALSE 

27. WHICH OF THE BELOW LISTED ARE THE PREFIRE CHECKS THAT MUST BE DONE 
PRIOR TOFIRING. 

A. LOWVOLTAGE, RAMMER, TUBE, BREECH ASSEMBLY, RECUPERATOR, AND 
REPLINISHER. 

B. LOW VOLTAGE, TUBE, BREECH, AND RECUPERATOR. 

C. LOWVOLTAGE, RAMMER, TUBE, BREECH ASSEMBLY, RECUPERATOR, 
REPLINISHER, ANDTHE DA FORM 4513. 

D. NONE OF THE ABOVE 

28. THE FOLLOWING FUZESARE FIRED WITH THE M107DEEP CAVITY HE 
PROJ ECTILE. 

A. M 557, M 739, M 564, M 582, M 577, M 732 

B . M 557, M 379, M 564, M 582, M 565, M 728 

C . M 557, M 739, M 565, M 577, M 728, M 732 

D. M 557, M 739, M 564, M 582, M 728, M 732 

29. YOUR PLATOON SERGEANT HAS DIRECTED YOU TO CONDUCT HOWITZER 
CONFIDENCE TEST FOR DIRECTION VERIFICATION WITH SURVEY CONTROL AND AN 
AZIMUTH TO A KNOWN POI NT. WHAT IS THE TOLERANCE FOR THIS TEST I N MILS? 

A.OMILS C.1MIL 

B.2MILS D.5MILS 

30. EXPLAIN THE PROPER WAY TO MATE AND TIGHTEN A FUZE TO A PROJ ECTILE. 



1-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

PHASE II: PREPARATION FOR FIRING OPERATIONS 

TASK 1: PREPARATION FOR DELIBERATE OCCUPATION OF FIRING POSITION 

Conditions 

1-2. The section is in the tactical assembly area (TAA). The evaluator will 
read the following: Your section is preparing to leave the TAA for a deliberate 
occupation. The advance party will depart in 15 minutes. Your platoon 
sergeant has informed you that the main body will depart in 45 minutes and 
that your section should make all necessary preparations for movement to 
include before operations checks and services on the howitzer and FAASV. 



Standards 



1-3. Perform before operations checks and services on howitzer and FAASV. 
Load and stow equipment, and check personnel and equipment as outlined in 
TM or according to unit SOP as applicable. NOTE: 1SG will check blocks 1 
and 2 during the section competition. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the section have all section equipment installed or stowed IAW applicable 
manuals and unit load plans, and did section members have all required 
individual clothing and equipment? 






2. Were all necessary items on hand for performing PMCS on the howitzer and 
the FAASV (i.e., Bll, operator's manuals, lubrication order, DA Form 5988-E 
Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet, log books, and cleaning 
materials? 






3. Were the headings of the DA Form 5988-Es properly completed for the conduct 
of before PMCS? 






4. Did the COS use all members present to conduct the inspection? 






5. Did the section inspect each item in the before column of the PMCS table in 
the operator's manual? 






6. Did the section members perform PMCS in an orderly manner with a 
minimum of supervision? 






7. Did the section use the DA Form 5988-E to list all faults that were not already 
listed under uncorrected faults that they could not correct? 






8. Was the section ready to depart the TAA within the time briefed by thePLT 
SGT? 







Scoring 



1-4. 25 points each will be awarded for a "go" rating in blocks 1 and 2. 5 points 
each will be awarded for a "go" in blocks 3 through 8. For each "no go" rating, 
points will be awarded. 



1-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 2: DISASSEMBLY OF BREECH MECHANISM 

Conditions 

1-5. After giving the howitzer section approximately 45 minutes to complete 
Task 1, theevaluator reads the foil owing situation totheCOS: 

1-6. During the conduct of the before operation checks and services on your 
cannon, you noted a malfunction in the breech mechanism. To troubleshoot 
the exact cause, you decide that you must disassemble the breech mechanism. 
You may select any member(s) of your section to perform this task. However, 
you may not physically perform any action. You have 1 minute to select the 
section member(s) to perform this task and assemble all required tools and 
manuals. At the end of 1 minute, the evaluator gives the following 
instructions to the section member(s) performing the task: 



Standards 



1-7. Disassemble breech, firing mechanism and obturator group as outlined in 
TM without error. Perform all actions in a safe manner without damage to 
equipment or injury to personnel. "ARE YOU READY?.. .GO". 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Was the breechblock, obturator group, and firing mechanism disassembled 
IAW the appropriate operator's manual? 






2. Was the operation performed in the prescribed safe manner? 







Scoring 



1-8. If a "go" rating is awarded, the disassembly will be graded according to 
speed of execution as outlined in the table below. If a "no go" rating is 
awarded, poi nts will be awarded for the enti re task. 



Time In 
Minutes 


Points 


0-3:45 


25 


3:46-4:05 


15 


4:06-4:20 


10 


4:21-8:00 


5 


8:01 or above 






1-8 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 3: ASSEMBLY OF BREECH MECHANISM 
Conditions 



Standards 



1-9. After evaluating Task 2, theevaluator reads the following to the COS and 
the section members previously selected for disassembly of the breech: 



1-10. Reassemble breech, firing mechanism and obturator group as outlined 
in TM without error. Perform all actions in a safe manner without damage to 
equipment or injury to personnel. "ARE YOU READY?.. .GO". 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Was the breech mechanism properly assembled 1 AW the appropriate 
operator's manual? 






2. Was the operation performed in the prescribed safe manner? 







Scoring 



1-11. If a "go" rating is awarded, the assembly will be graded according to 
speed of execution as outlined in the table below. If a "no go" rating is 
awarded, poi nts will be awarded for the enti re task. 



Time In 
Minutes 


Points 


0-4:15 


25 


4:16-4:35 


15 


4:36-4:50 


10 


4:51-12:00 


5 


12:01 or above 






1-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 4: PERFORMANCE OF MICROMETER TEST ON THE GUNNERS QUADRANT 

Conditions 

1-12. After evaluating Task 3, the evaluator reads the following to the 
howitzer COS: 

1-13. Because of recent firing inaccuracies, the platoon leader has told each 
howitzer section to perform the micrometer and end-for-end tests on its 
gunner's quadrants. You (or any member of your section) will perform the 
micrometer test and announce any error and corrective action. After the 
micrometer test, do not remove the gunner's quadrant from the breech until 
told to do so by the evaluator. 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-14. Perform micrometer test on the gunner's quadrant as outlined in theTM 
without error. "ARE YOU READY?.. .GO". 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the soldiers follow the correct procedures in performing the micrometer 
test? 






2. Was the soldier able to determine if the micrometer knob was or was not in 
error and the action to betaken if it was in error? 







Scoring 



I -15. 1 f al I "go" rati ngs are awarded, the score wi 1 1 be determi ned by the speed 
of execution as outlined in the table below. If a "no go" rating is awarded, 
poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded for the enti re task. 



Time In 
Seconds 


Points 


0-30 


25 


31-40 


15 


41-50 


10 


51-60 


5 


61 or above 






1-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 5: PERFORMANCE OF THE END-FOR-END TEST 
Conditions 

1-16. After evaluating Task 4, theevaluator reads the following to the COS: 

1-17. Now that the micrometer test has been done, you (or any member of 
your section) will perform the end-for-end test on your gunner's quadrant. At 
the conclusion of the test: 

• Leave the gunner's quadrant on the breech 

• Announce the error to theevaluator 

• Announce to the evaluator if the gunner's quadrant is serviceable or 
unserviceable 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-18. Perform end-for-end test on the gunner's quadrant as outlined in the 
TM without error. "ARE YOU READY?.. .GO". 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the soldier follow the correct procedures in performing the end-for-end 
test? 






2. Was the correct quadrant error announced? 






3. Was the quadrant declared unserviceable if the error exceeded +or - 0.4 mil, 
or declared serviceable if the error was 0.4 mil or less? 







Scoring 



1-19. If all "go" ratings were awarded, the score for the task will be 
determined by the speed of execution as outlined in the table below. If a "no 
go" is awarded, points will be awarded for the entire task. 



Time In 
Minutes 


Points 


0:00-1:00 


25 


1:01-1:20 


20 


1:21-1:30 


15 


1:31-1:40 


10 


1:41-1:50 


5 


1:51-2:00 


2 


2:01 or above 






1-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 6: CREW SERVED AND INDIVIDUAL WEAPONS 

Conditions 

1-20. Prior to departing the TAA, the platoon leader informs the chiefs to 
check all crew and individual weapons for proper functioning. 



Standards 



1-21. Perform functions check of individual and crew served weapons without 
error I AW applicable TMs. Perform head space and timing check on M2 
machine guns without error I AW applicableTM. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Was the head space properly set on both M 2 machine guns? 






2. Was the timing properly set on both M2 machine guns? 






3. Did the section members properly conduct a functions check on the individual 
weapons, M2 machine guns, and MK-19? 







Scoring 



1-22. For each "go" rating, 5 points will be awarded, for a maximum 15 points. 
For each "no go" rating, points will be awarded. 



1-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 7: AFCS INITIALIZATION 
Conditions 



Standards 



1-23. Given a fully operational M109A6 howitzer, a SCP location, and an 
operational POC under field conditions, the section will conduct AFCS 
initialization. 



1-24. Initialize the AFCS in order without error. Chief of section, gunner, or 
ATC must initialize the AFCS. AFCS must be checked by a second person 
who is safety certified. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Enter NET ACCESS DATA and NET ADDRESS DATA IAW battery SOP. 
This information will be standard within the battery and should not change. 






2. Enter SET DATE/TIME; time will be requested from the POC. POC will give 

"mark". 






3. Request initialization in BCS DATA TRANSFER. 






4. Enter MAP/DATUM. 






5. Execute NAV UPDATE. Two individuals must verify data before USE ALL key 
is used. Sections will record easting, northing, and altitude. 






6. Select AMMO INVENTORY, EDIT CURRENT AFCS if you are going toinput 
ammunition on hand. Select EDIT BCS PROVIDED if you are going to use 
ammunition inventory which POC has sent to AFCS. If ammunition is not 
present at the time of initialization select FINISHED. When inputting 
ammunition, physically look at the square weights. When inputting lot, use the 
battalion standard lot outlined in theTSOP. 






7. Enter PROP TEMP using powder temperature gauge which has been placed in 
a propellant charge for 10 minutes. If propellant has not been received use tube 
temperature in SETUP AND INFORMATION screen. ALERT TIME will beset 
at 1 hour. When one of the foil owing exists, powder temperature will beupdated: 

a. Initial occupation and before PIECE STATUS is sent to the POC. 

b. Whenever PROP TEMP ALERT displays. 

c. As directed by the POC. 

d. If type propellant is changed, section will put powder temperature gauge in 
the propellant which is to be shot. Wait 5 minutes before updating and then send 
PIECE STATUS to POC. 

e. If powder temperature changes when updating powder temperature, PIECE 
STATUS will besent to POC. 


— 


— 


8. Enter MVV ROUNDS (1-9). 






9. Enter 2 minutes for TOT RESPONSE 






10. Enter 300 mils for LOAD ELEVATION. (This is only until safety "T" is 
received.) 







1-13 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Evaluation Task 7: AFCS Initialization (Continued) 



11. Enter SECTOR OF FIRE, left limit sector of fire, center sector of fire, and 
right limit sector of fire. This information will be given to the POC. 






12. Select CANCEL to display SECTION IN ORDER screen. 







Scoring 



1-25. If all "go" ratings were awarded, the score for the task is 30 points. For a 
"no go" rating, points will be awarded for this entire task. 



1-14 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

PHASE III: OCCUPATION 

TASK 8: CONDUCT A TACTICAL MOVE TO A FIRING POSITION 

Conditions 

1-26. The section is conducting combat operations and receives an order that 
requires displacement. 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-27. Section must be in position at the prescribed time in order to conduct 
fire mission. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Receive movement brief from platoon leadership. 






2. Receive movement order from POC. (Manual movement order and sectors of 
fire may be given.) 






3. Verify move order and sectors of fire with POC on the voice net. 






4. Record and plot destination map and brief section. 






5. Maintain communications with higher (POC/platoon leadership). 






6. Ensure all equipment and ammunition are loaded and secured IAW load 
plans. 






7. Conduct move IAW movement brief. 






8. If NAV UPDATE is conducted while enroute, SCP data will be recorded. COS 
tells driver to record and track mileage after NAV UPDATE. 






9. Defend against ground attack while moving. 






10. Defend against air attack while moving. 







Scoring 



1-28. For each "go" rating, 2 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 20 
poi nts. F or each "no go" rati ng, poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded. 



1-15 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 9: EMERGENCY MISSION 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-29. During movement to another PA, you receive a call for fire (fire 
mission). Your section must conduct an emergency fire mission. (You have 
departed your original PA.) 



1-30. Section fires the mission IAWARTEP 6-037-30-MTP. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. COS receives mission, finds suitable location, stops, verifies location, and 
emplaces howitzer on the azimuth which is displayed on the AFCS screen. 






2. Gunner verifies direction using M2 compass (1 AW TSOP). 






3. COS presses the ARRIVED key on AFCS. 






4. COS directs driver to release travel lock. 






5. Driver will raise the RPMs of the howitzer to 1,000 to 1,200 RPM and will 
record the fire mission on DA Form 4513-R. 






6. COS will activate servos and push LOAD key. 






7. COS and gunner will verify immediate crest along commanded deflection. 






8. COS responds and issues the fire commands. 






9. Number 1 man prepares ammunition by lot and shell/fuze combination. (Sets 
time if time fuze is used.) 






10. Gunner prepares announced propellant for fire mission. 






11. COS checks fuze for tightness and if time fuze is used checks time setting. 






12. Number 1 man will ram projectile (pushes manual control lever forward, 
holding lever for 4 seconds to allow full extension of rammer cylinder rod and 
proper seating). 






13. COS will verify charge before gunner loads in tube. Gunner will place charge 
in tube (red igniter pad facing the rear) and announce "CHARGE, 1 SEE RED." 
Gunner will then announce "CLOSI NG" and lift the breech operating handle 
causing the breech to close. Gunner will then ensure witness marks align and 
announce "WITNESS MARKS ALIGNED". 






14. COS will press LAY key and announce "LAY LIGHT IS LIT, ACTUAL AND 
COMMAND DEFLECTION AND QUADRANT ARE WITHIN TOLERANCE (-t/- 
0.9mils),AND NO WARNING MESSAGE IS PRESENT". Gunner will check all 
three things and announce VERI Fl ED. (If it is a high anglefire mission, the 
command to PRIME will be given before pressing the LAY key.) Gunner will 
announce "CHECK FIRING" if a violation of the above step occurs or data does 
not match. 






15. COS will command "PRIME". Number 1 man will prime. 






16. COS will command "HOOK UP". Number 1 man will hook up. 







1-16 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Evaluation Task 9: Emergency Mission (Continued) 



17. COS will command "FIRE" and Number 1 man will fire (if it is AM C, COS 
waits until the command is given tofireover the AFCS). 



Scoring 



1-31. For each "go" rating, 3 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 51 
poi nts. F or each "no go" rati ng, poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded. 



1-17 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 10: DELIBERATE OCCUPATION 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-32. The section is occupying a new firing position that has been 
reconnoitered and set up by theGSG. 



1-33. Establish firing capability without error I AW ARTE P 6-037-30-MTP. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. COS may have to do NAV UPDATE at entrance point as per platoon leader 
instruction. SCP data will be recorded on DA Form 4446 (not part of 2 minute 
occupation time). COS tells driver to record and track mileage after NAV 
UPDATE. 






2. Platoon occupies position area, wingmen insure intervisibility with center 
howitzer (1 AW TSOP). 






3. COS directs driver to orient howitzer on center sector (4/-50 mils) (2 minute 
time starts when first howitzer stops) and empl ace spades if needed. 






4. Howitzer may need to wait 30 seconds before doing step 5 (if NAV U PDATE 
has not been conducted within the last 5 miles wait the 30 seconds). 






5. COS presses the ARRIVED key on AFCS. 






6. COS directs driver to release travel lock. 






7. COS elevates tube to MAX TUBE ELEVATION and selects USE TUBE 
POSITION. 






8. COS and gunner conduct SITE DATA. 






9. COS updates POWDER TEMP in AFCS. 






10. COS sends PIECE STATUS to POC. 






11. Number 1 man prepares HE/PD in ready rack whilesteps 4through 9 are 
being conducted. 






12. COS directs crew to perform prefi re checks. 






13. Gunner verifies boresight with the M 140. 






14. COS directs section to do position improvement. 






15. Establish an aiming point. (DAP during day time operations if one can be 
used. Collimator at night or during the day if no DAP is available). 






16. Construct range cards and establish survivability movement plan as directed 
byPLTSGT. 






17. Conduct verification mission with POC (read back CHARGE, Tl if time is set, 
DF, and QE). (Only if there is a significant database change.) 






18. COS will receive, record, and read back to POC safety T information. COS 
will inputMAXQE off the safety T inMAXTUBE ELEVATION, TYPE NEW 
VALUE. 







1-18 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Evaluation Task 10: Deliberate Occupation (Continued) 



20. COS will input MIN QE as announced by POC and record charge to be fired 
as required. 



Scoring 



1-34. For each "go" rating, 5 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 100 
poi nts. F or each "no go" rati ng, poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded. 



1-19 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 11: FIRE MISSIONS 
Conditions 



Standards 



1-35. You have completed the occupation of a new firing position and reported 
to the POC that you are RTF. You will conduct indirect fire missions as sent 
from the POC. 



1-36. The howitzer section is ready to fire within 30 seconds (45 seconds for 
high angle, 1 minute for Copperhead inspection of the round) after receipt 
and acknowledgement of the fire mission. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List-Four Missions: 

High Angle Fire For Effect (FFE), Low Angle FFE, Priority Target, and Low 

Angle Adjust 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. COS operates the AFCS and processes the fire mission. 






2. COS responds and issues the fire commands. 






3. Driver will raise the RPMs of the howitzer to 1,000 to 1,200 RPM and will 
record the fire mission on DA Form 4513-R. 






4. COS will activate servos and push LOAD KEY. 






5. Number 1 man prepares ammunition by lot and shell/fuze combination (sets 
time if time fuze is used). 






6. Gunner prepares announced propellant. 






7. COS checks fuze for tightness and if time fuze is used checks time setting. 






8. Number 1 man will ram projectile (pushes manual control lever forward, 
holding lever for 4 seconds to allow full extension of rammer cylinder rod and 
proper seating). 






9. COS will verify charge before gunner loads in tube. Gunner will place charge 
in tube red igniter pad facing the rear and announce "CHARGE, 1 SEE RED". 
Gunner will then announce "CLOSI NG" and lift the breech operating handle 
causing the breech to close. Gunner will ensure witness marks align and 
announce "WITNESS MARKS ALIGNED". 






10. COS will press LAY key and announce "LAY LIGHT IS LIT, ACTUAL AND 
COMMAND DEFLECTION AND QUADRANT ARE WITHIN TOLERANCE (-t/- 
0.9 mils) AND NOWARNING MESSAGE IS PRESENT". Gunner will check all 
three things and announce VERI Fl ED. (If it is a high anglefire mission, the 
command to PRIME will be given before pressing the LAY key.) Gunner will 
announce "CHECK FIRING" if a violation of the above steps occurs or if data 
does not match. 






11. COS will command "PRIME". Number 1 man will prime. 






12. COS will command "HOOK UP". Number 1 man will hook up. 






13. COS will command "FIRE" and Number 1 man will fire. (If it is AMC, COS 
waits until the command is given tofireover the AFCS. 







1-20 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Scoring 

1-37. If all steps are graded as a "go", the section will receive 50 points for 
each mission (High Angle FFE, Low Angle FFE, Priority Target, and Low 
Angle Adjust). For a "no go" rating, points will be awarded for the mission. 
Note: If any unsafe data is fired, the section will receive points for the 
entire mission. 



1-21 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 12: MISFIRE PROCEDURES 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-38. During firing, your section experienced a misfire. You have only fired 2 
rounds prior to the misfire so you have a cold tube. 



1-39. Perform misfire procedures I AW the TM without error, observing all 
warnings listed for cold tube weapon. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the number 1 cannoneer announce misfire? 






2. Did the number 1 man wait 2 minutes prior to removing the primer? 






3. Was the primer replaced if needed? 






4. Wasthefiring mechanism repaired or replaced as needed? 






5. Was the weapon fired after corrective action was taken? 






6. Were all warnings listed in theTM followed? 







Scoring 



1-40. For each "go" rating, 5 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 30 
poi nts. F or each "no go" rati ng, poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded. 



1-22 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 13: SURVIVABILITY MOVE 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-41. The section is conducting tactical operations. One, a pair, or a platoon of 
howitzers is required to displace IAW the TSOP or tactical guidance to 
provide fires in support of maneuver forces and increase survivability. 



1-42. Sections will load all section equipment, maintain communications with 
the control element, and move to another firing position within the PA. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. When it has been determined to move, section will ensure all equipment and 
ammunition are loaded and secured. 






2. Senior COS will tell wingmen where they are moving. 






3. COS directs driver to put up travel lock, COS stores tube in travel lock, and 
driver locks travel lock. Stows spades if emplaced. 






4. Sections move to new position. 






5. COS pushes ARRIVED key. 






6. COS and gunner will do SITE DATA. 






7. COS will direct section to perform prefi re checks. 






8. COS will update POWDER TEMP if needed. 






9. COS will send PIECE STATUS to POC. 






10. COS directs section to establish an aiming reference point. 






11. Number 1 man prepares HE/PD in ready rack while steps 5 through 10 are 
being conducted. 







Scoring 



1-43. For each "go" rating, 5 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 55 
poi nts. F or each "no go" rati ng, poi nts wi 1 1 be awarded. 



1-23 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PHASE IV: DEGRADED OPERATIONS 

1-44. Note for evaluator to read to the COS: During movement to your next 
position your AFCS has gone out. You will have to occupy using degraded 
operations. Do not shut down your AFCS. 

TASK 14: OCCUPATION 

Conditions 

1-45. During your movement to this location your AFCS has gone out (don't 
shut the AFCS down). You will have to occupy and fire missions in a 
degraded operations mode. 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-46. The section establishes a firing capability and prepares to accept fire 
missions and deliver fires. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. The howitzer has lost electrical power. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Limited electrical power from the M992A1 APU provides enough power for 
AFCS operation only (if FAASV is not available, you must use step e through j). 

c. Manually elevate and traverse the tube. 

d. Manually ram projectile. 

e. Use reciprocal lay, aiming circle, or compass laying technique. 

f. Use spades. 

g. Use DAP or collimator. 

h. Manually elevate and traverse the tube. 

i. Receive firing data from adjacent howitzer by wire. 

j. Operate travel lock. 


— 


— 


2. Receive firing data from the POC over a voice net. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. U se spades. 

c. Receive firing data from the POC over a voice net. 

d. Lay the howitzer with the gunner's control handle. 

e. Use DAP or collimator. 

f. If moving, navigate manually to destination, use another howitzer to provide 
location and for reciprocal lay. 


— 


— 



1-24 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Evaluation Task 14: Occupation (Continued) 



3. The howitzer has no digital communication. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Collocate within 30-50 meters of operational gun and use operational gun's 
data or determine firing data in the POC (this method is slower than collocation 
with an operational gun, but more accurate). 

c. Use a voice net for fire direction. COS can move W18 cable from digital radio 
to voice radio and change frequency and frequency hopping in radio. 

d. Manually input data into the AFCS. 

e. Report rounds complete. 


— 


— 


4. The navigation system is inoperative. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. The POC provides firing data to the howitzer. 

c. The POC can send another howitzer to get a more accurate position or use 
hasty survey techniques. 

d. U se a D AP or col 1 i mator. 


— 


— 


5. The howitzer has lost hydraulic power. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Load, traverse, and elevate manually according to the procedures in the 
current -10 series TM . 


— 


— 


6. The gun drive servos are inoperative. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Lay with the chief of section hydraulic control handle. 

c. Lay manually using the gunner's elevating hand wheel. 


— 


— 


7. The howitzer has lost voice radio communications. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Use wire to an adjacent howitzer. 

c. UsetheFAASV's radio. 

d. Use digital net as a voice and digital net. 


— 


— 


8. The transmission, final drive, or engine is inoperative. 

a. Notify the POC. 

b. Tow the howitzer to a subsequent position using the FAASV and use the 
APU to power AFCS. 

c. Continue firing until repaired or replaced. 


— 


— 



Scoring 



1-47. If all "go" ratings are received in a subtask, the section will be awarded 
10 points each for a maximum of 80 points. For any "no go" rating in the 
subtask area, points will be awarded for that subtask. Note: If any unsafe 
conditions exist (i.e., howitzer not laid properly or collimator improperly set) 
the section will receive points for this task. 



1-25 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 15: USE OF CONVEYOR 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-48. Due to the howitzer degraded mode, the COS has decided to use mated 
operations. The F AASV will be backed up to the howitzer and the conveyor is 
to be put into operation. 



1-49. Extend and operate conveyor I AW TM without error. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Was the conveyor properly extended and put into operation? 







Scoring 



1-50. For a "go" rating, 10 points will be awarded. For a "no go" rating, 
points will be awarded. 



1-26 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 16: FIRE MISSIONS IN DEGRADED MODE 

Conditions 

1-51. Your howitzer AFCS has gone out and you are required to fire missions 
in the degraded operations mode. Your howitzer is conducting combat 
operations and has established a firing capability without the aid of the 
Paladin's automation. 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-52. The howitzer is ready to fire within 45 seconds (60 seconds for high 
angle, 1 minute for Copperhead) after the receipt of quadrant. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. The POC issues safety "T" to COS which he records on his safety "T" (if 
applicable). 






2. The POC issues the fire commands. 






3. Howitzer section responds to the POC's fire commands. 






4. The COS announces the fire commands. 






5. Driver will raise the RPMs of the howitzer to 1,000 to 1,200 RPM and will 
record the fire mission on DA Form 4513-R. 






6. The COS ensures section personnel follow commands. 

a. "DO NOT LOAD"-Takeall necessary actions to prepare for firing without 
loading; report "NUMBER _-IS LAID" when complete. 

b. "AT MY COMMAND"- Take all necessary action to prepare for firing, report 
"NUMBER _ IS READY" when complete. 

c. "AZIMUTH "-Traverse weapon immediately to required deflection. 

d. "SPECIAL CORRECTIONS"-Record and apply special corrections for DF, 
QE, and FZ setting. Upon end of mission return to standard corrections. 

e. "(LEFT) (CE NTE R) (RIGHT) SECTOR"- Apply sector corrections. U pon end 
of mission return to standard corrections. 

f. "CANCEL TERRAIN CORRECTIONS" -Set gunner's aid counters to 0. Upon 
end of mission return to standard corrections. 


— 


— 


7. Number 1 man prepares ammunition by lot and shell/fuze combination (Set 
time if time fuze is used). 






8. COS checks fuze for tightness and if time fuze is used checks time setting. 






9. Number 1 man will ram projectile (pushes manual control lever forward, 
holding lever for 4 seconds to allow full extension of rammer cylinder rod and 
proper seating). 






10. Number 1 man prepares propellant which was announced. 






11. COS checks the proper propellant before number 1 man places it in the tube. 







1-27 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Evaluation Task 16: Fire Missions in Degraded Mode (continued) 



12. Number 1 man will load charge in tube with red igniter pad facing the rear of 
the tube announcing, "CHARGE _, 1 SEE RED". Number 1 man will then 
announce "CLOSING" and lift the breech operating handle causing the breech to 
close. Number 1 man will ensure witness marks align and announce "WITNESS 
MARKSALIGN". 






13. At the same time the gunner set announced DF on thepantel and set the QE 
on the elevation quadrant. 






14. The gunner traverses onto the aiming point. 






15. The gunner elevates to the announced QE. 






16. Gunner levels all bubbles and announces "SET" and "READY". 






17. The COS verifies data, bubbles, and sight picture. 






18. COS will command, "PRIME". Number 1 man will prime. 






19. COS will command, "HOOKUP". Number 1 man will hook up. 






20. COS will command, "Fl RE" and number 1 man will fire. (If it is AMC, COS 
waits until the command is given to fire by POC). 






21. COS is responsible to ensure the following special instructions are executed 
or computed correctly if given by the POC: 

a. "ZONE FIRE "-Correctly compute required QE, fire announced QE first and 
subsequent QE in any order. 

b. "SWEEPING FIRE "-Correctly compute required DF, fire announced DF 
first and subsequent DF in any order. 

c. "SWEEP AND ZONE "-Correctly compute required QE and DF, fire 
announced DF and QE first, and all combinations of DF and QE. 

d. "CONTINUOUS FIRE "-Load and fire as rapidly as possible consistent with 
maintenance of accuracy and sustained rate of fire of howitzer. Continue until 
command to CHECK FIRING or CEASE LOADING. 

e. "FIRE AT WILL "-Howitzer COS controls howitzer fires as the situation and 
target necessitate. 


— 


— 


22. COS ensures that establishes safety principles are observed during firing. 







Scoring 



1-53. If all steps are graded as a "go", the section will receive 100 points. 
points will be awarded for any "no go". If any unsafe data is fired, the section 
will receive points for that mission. 1 point will be deducted for each second 
over the allowed time not to exceed 20 points. 



1-28 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 17: DIRECT FIRE 
Conditions 



Standards 



1-54. A stationary target is positioned 400-800 meters from the howitzer. The 
COS is given a series of 3x5 cards that requires the section to use direct 
laying procedures. 



1-55. Engage a target in the direct fire mode as outlined in the TM within 
time and safety standards. Note: Central lay method will be used for this 
task. 



Evaluation 



Standards 


Scoring Direct Fire Penalty 


Max 

Point 

Cut 


The COS issues correct and complete fire 
commands within 20 seconds of the receipt of 
each card, and section members announce 
correct commands. 


1 point deducted for each omitted or 
incorrect fire command, or for each 
command that takes over 20 seconds. 


5 


The announced lead and range or elevation 
are set off. 


6 points deducted for every incorrect 
lead, range, or elevation. 


6 


All bubbles are centered when howitzer is 
fired (first round only ). 


2 points deducted for each bubble not 
centered. 


4 


The time from the last digit of range or 
elevation until the howitzer is fired is 20 
seconds or less. 


1 point deducted for each second over 
20. 


5 



Scoring 



1-56. Each situation card is worth a total of 10 points. Each section will be 
graded on 4 separate situation cards for a total of 40 points. 



1-29 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

Phase V: NBC OPERATIONS 

TASK 18: ASSUME MOPP LEVEL 2 
Conditions 

1-57. Enroutetothis location you crossed a contaminated area. 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-58. Operate in a contaminated environment in MOPP level 4. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did all section members have all required MOPP gear? 






2. Were all section members in the proper MOPP level? 






3. Was MOPP gear worn properly? 






4. Did the section stay in MOPP throughout the mission? 






5. Did section take proper precautions prior to crossing contaminated area? 







Scoring 



1-59. For each "go" rating 2, points will be awarded, for a total of 10 points. 
For a "no go" rating, points will be awarded. 



1-30 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 19: NBC OCCUPATION 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-60. Having crossed a contaminated area you must provide fire support prior 
to going to a decontamination site. 



1-61. Operate in a contaminated environment in MOPP level 4 performing 
AFCS update and occupation. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the section stay in MOPP during occupation? 






2. Did the COS update his AFCS at theSCP prior to occupation? 






3. Did the COS follow proper procedures during occupation? 






4. Was the occupation accomplished within time standards? 







Scoring 



1-62. For each "go" rating, 5 points will be awarded, for a total of 20 points. 
For any "no go" rating, points will be awarded. 



1-31 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

TASK 20: FIRE MISSION IN NBC EQUIPMENT 
Conditions 

1-63. While in MOPP you must conduct an indirect fire mission. 



Standards 



1-64. Conduct indirect fire mission in MOPP level 4, preparing ammunition 
for firing, verifying data, issuing fire commands, and firing safe announced 
data. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the section stay in MOPP? 






2. Was the round properly prepared for firing? 






3. Did the COS compare and verify all data? 






4. Did COS announce firing commands? 






5. Was proper data fired? 







Scoring 



1-65. For each "go" rating, 3 points will be awarded, for a total of 15 points. 
For any "no go" rating, points will be awarded. If any unsafe data is fired, 
the section will receive points for this task. 



1-32 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 21: UTILIZING THE M256KIT 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-66. Having completed your fire missions you must determine the type of 
contamination if any. The COS has instructed the section to utilize a M256 
kit. 



1-67. Use M256 Kit without error to determine and report type of 
contamination present in area. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the section have M 256 kit readily available? 






2. Did the section have personnel identified to conduct the test? 






3. Did thesection follow proper procedures for conducting thetest? 






4. Was the proper report/findings sent to the POC? 






5. Did thesection remain in MOPP 4 during thetest? 







Scoring 



1-68. For each "go" rating, 2 points will be awarded for a total of 10 points. For 
any "no go" rati ng, poi nts will be awarded. 



1-33 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

Phase VI: NIGHT OPERATIONS 

TASK 22: NIGHT OCCUPATION 
Conditions 



Standards 



Evaluation 



1-69. During the hours of darkness, your section received movement orders to 
relocate to a new position. 



1-70. Occupy new position under cover of darkness and perform procedures 
I AW TM without error. 



Evaluation Check List 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. Did the section update the AFCS prior to occupying the firing area? 






2. Did the COS align his howitzer with the azimuth of fire (4/- 10 mils)? 






3. Did the COS press ARRIVED key to send location to POC? 






4. Did the COS verify direction by using the M 2 compass? 






5. Did the COS determine site data? 






6. Did theCOS input min and max QE? 






7. Did the COS verify firing limits? 






8. Were prefi re checks completed 1 AW -10 manual? 






9. Did gunner establish an alternate aiming point and record it on the gunner's 
reference card? 






10. Was position improvement done as time permits? 







Scoring 



1-71. For each "go" rating, 3 points will be awarded, for a maximum of 30 
poi nts. F or a "no go" rati ng, poi nts will be awarded. 



1-34 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



TASK 23:CONDUCT NIGHT FIRE MISSIONS 
Conditions 



Standards 



1-72. You have completed the occupation of a new firing position and reported 
to the POC that you are RTF. You will conduct indirect fire missions as sent 
from the POC. 



1-73. The howitzer section is ready to fire within 30 seconds (45 seconds for 
high angle, 1 minute for Copperhead excluding inspection of the round) after 
receipt and acknowledgment of the fire mission. 



Evaluation 



Evaluation Check List-Four Missions: 


Go 


No 
Go 


1. COS operates the AFCS and processes the fire mission. 






2. COS responds and issues the fire commands. 






3. Driver will raise the RPMs of the howitzer to 1,000 to 1,200 RPM and will 
record the fire mission on DA Form 4513-R. 






4. COS will activate servos and push LOAD KEY. 






5. Number 1 man prepares ammunition by lot and shell/fuze combination (sets 
time if time fuze is used). 






6. Gunner prepares announced propellant. 






7. COS checks fuze for tightness and if time fuze is used checks time setting. 






8. Number 1 man will ram projectile (pushes manual control lever forward, 
holding lever for 4 seconds to allow full extension of rammer cylinder rod and 
proper seating). 






9. COS will verify charge before gunner loads in tube. Gunner will place charge 
in tube red igniter pad facing the rear and announce "CHARGE, 1 SEE RED". 
Gunner will then announce "CLOSI NG" and lift the breech operating handle 
causing the breech to close. Gunner will ensure witness marks align and 
announce "WITNESS MARKS ALIGNED". 






10. COS will press LAY key and announce "LAY LIGHT IS LIT, ACTUAL AND 
COMMAND DEFLECTION AND QUADRANT ARE WITHIN TOLERANCE (-t/- 
0.9 mils) AND NOWARNING MESSAGE IS PRESENT". Gunner will check all 
three things and announce VERI Fl ED. (If it is a high anglefire mission, the 
command to PRIME will be given before pressing the LAY key.) Gunner will 
announce "CHECK FIRING" if a violation of the above steps occurs or if data 
does not match. 






11. COS will command "PRIME". Number 1 man will prime. 






12. COS will command "HOOK UP". Number 1 man will hook up. 






13. COS will command "FIRE" and Number 1 man will fire. (If it is AMC, COS 
waits until the command is given tofireover the AFCS. 







1-35 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 
Scoring 



1-74. If all steps are graded as a "go", the section will be awarded 100 points 
for the mission. For each "no go" rating points will be awarded. Note: If any 
unsafe data is fired, the section will receive points for the mission. 



1-36 



Appendix J 

AFCS/BCS Spheroid and Datum Tables 

This appendix provides AFCS/BCS spheroid and datum tables for the 
Paladin system per TM 9-2350-314-10. Selection of the datum to be used 
is performed from the setup and information displays (enter 
MAP/DATUM display). 



Table J-1. Australian National Spheroid (Spheroid Code 1) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Australian National Spheroid 








1 


ANO 


Anna 1 Astro 1965 


-491 


-22 


435 


2 


AUA 


Australian Geodetic 1966 


-133 


-48 


148 


3 


AUG 


Australian Geodetic 1984 


-134 


-48 


149 


Table J-2. Bessel (Ethiopia) 1841 Spheroid (Spheroid Code 2) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Bessel 1841 (Ethiopia, Indonesia, J apan, 
and Korea) 








4 


BUR 


Bukit Rimpah 


-384 


664 


-48 


5 


BAT 


Djakarta (Batavia) 


-377 


681 


-50 


6 


GSE 


Gunung Segara 


-403 


684 


41 


7 


MAS 


M assawa 


639 


405 


60 


8 


TOY-M 


Tokyo 


-148 


507 


685 


Table J-3. Bessel (Nambia) 1841 Spheroid (Spheroid Code 3) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Bessel 1841 (Nambia) 








9 


SCK 


Schwarzeck 


616 


97 


-251 



J-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





Table J-4. Clarke 1866 Spheroid (Spheroid Code 4) 








Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Clarke 1866 Spheroid 








10 


BER 


Bermuda 1957 


-73 


213 


296 


11 


CAC 


Cape Canaveral 


-2 


151 


181 


12 


GUA 


Guam 1963 


-100 


-248 


259 


13 


LCF 


L.C. 5 Astro 1961 


42 


124 


147 


14 


LUZ-A 


Luzon Philippines 


-133 


-77 


-51 


15 


LUZ-B 


Luzon Mindanao Island 


-133 


-79 


-72 






North American 1927 








16 


NAS-C 


(CONUS) 


-8 


160 


176 


17 


NAS-D 


Alaska (Excluding Aleutian Islands) 


-5 


135 


172 


18 


NAS-Q 


Bahamas (Excluding San Salvador Island) 


-4 


154 


178 


19 


NAS-E 


[Canada and Newfoundland] 


-10 


158 


187 


20 


NAS-0 


Canal Zone 





125 


201 


21 


NAS-P 


Caribbean 


-3 


142 


183 


22 


NAS-N 


Central America 





125 


194 


23 


NAS-U 


Greenland (Hayes Peninsula) 


11 


114 


195 


24 


NAS-L 


Mexico 


-12 


130 


190 


25 


NAS-R 


San Salvador Island 


1 


140 


165 


26 


OHA-M 


Old Hawaiian 


61 


-285 


-181 


27 


PUR 


Puerto Rico 


11 


72 


-101 



J-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





Table J-5. Clarke 1880 Spheroid (Spheroid Code 5) 








Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Clarke 1880 Spheroid 












Adindan 








28 


ADI-M 


Ethiopia, Sudan 


-166 


-15 


204 


29 


ADI-E 


Burkina Faso 


-118 


-14 


218 


30 


ADI-F 


Cameroon 


-134 


-2 


210 


31 


ADI-C 


Mali 


-123 


-20 


220 


32 


ADI-D 


Senegal 


-128 


-18 


224 


33 


AIA 


Antigua 1 sland Astro 1943 


-270 


13 


62 






Arc 1950 








34 


ARF-M 


[Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, 
Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe] 


-143 


-90 


-294 


35 


ARF-H 


Burundi 


-153 


-5 


-292 


36 


ARS 


Arc 1960 


-160 


-6 


-302 


37 


PHA 


Ayabelle Lighthouse 


-79 


-129 


145 


38 


CAP 


Cape 


-136 


-108 


-292 


39 


CGE 


Carthage 


-263 


6 


431 


40 


DAL 


Dabola 


-83 


37 


124 


41 


FOT 


Fort Thomas 1955 


-7 


215 


225 


42 


LEH 


Leigon 


-130 


29 


364 


43 


LIB 


Liberia 1964 


-90 


40 


88 


44 


MIK 


Mahel971 


41 


-220 


-134 


45 


MER 


Merchich 


31 


146 


47 






Minna 








46 


MIN-A 


Cameroon 


-81 


-84 


115 


47 


MIN-B 


Nigeria 


-92 


-93 


122 


48 


ASM 


Montserrat Island Astro 1958 


174 


359 


365 


49 


MPO 


M'Poraloko 


-74 


-130 


42 






Nahrwan 








50 


NAH-A 


Masirah Island (Oman) 


-247 


-148 


369 


51 


NAH-B 


United Arab Emirates 


-249 


-156 


381 


52 


NAH-C 


Saudi Arabia 


-243 


-192 


477 


53 


FAH 


Oman 


-346 


-1 


224 


54 


PTB 


Point 58 


-106 


-129 


165 


55 


PTN 


Point Noire 1948 


-148 


51 


-291 


56 


MVS 


Viti Levu 1916 


51 


391 


-36 



J-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table J-6. Everest (Brunei and East Malaysia) Spheroid (Spheroid Code 6) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Everest (Brunei and East Malaysia) 
Spheroid 








57 


TIL 


Timbalai 1948 












[Brunei and East Malaysia] 


-679 


669 


-48 



Table J-7. Everest (India 1830) Spheroid (Spheroid Code 7) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Everest (1 ndia 1830) Spheroid 








58 


IND-B 


Indian 












Bangladesh 


282 


726 


254 


59 


INF-A 


Indian 1954 


217 


823 


299 


60 


INH-A 


Indian 1975 


209 


818 


290 


61 


KAN 


Kandawala 


-97 


787 


86 



Table J-8. Everest (India 1956) Spheroid (Spheroid Code 8) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Everest I ndia 1956 Spheroid 








62 


IND-I 


Indian 












India, Nepal 


295 


736 


257 



Table J-9. Everest (West Malaysia and Singapore) 1948 Spheroid (Spheroid Code 9) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Everest (West Malaysia and Singaporel948) 
Spheroid 








63 


KEA 


Kertau 1948 












West Malaysia and Singapore 


-11 


851 


5 



J-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table J-10. Geodetic Reference System (GRS) 80 Spheroid (Spheroid Code A) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






GRS 80 Spheroid 








64 


NAR 


North American 1983 











Table J-11. Helmert 1906 Spheroid (Spheroid Code B) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Helmert Spheroid 








65 


OEG 


Old Egyptian 1907 


-130 


110 


-13 


Table J-12. Hough 1960 Spheroid (Spheroid Code C) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Hough 1960 Spheroid 








66 


ENW 


Wake-Eniwetok 1960 


102 


52 


-38 


Table J-13. International 1924 Spheroid (Spheroid Code D) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






International 1924 Spheroid 












AinEI Abdl970 








67 


AIN-A 


Bahrain Island 


-150 


-250 


-1 


68 


AIN-B 


Saudi Arabia 


-143 


-236 


7 


69 


ASC 


Ascension Island 1958 


-205 


107 


53 


70 


ATF 


Astro Beacon "E" 1945 


145 


75 


-272 


71 


TRN 


AstroTern Island (FRIG) 1961 


114 


-116 


-333 


72 


SHB 


Astro DOS 71/4 


-320 


550 


-494 


73 


ASQ 


Astronomical Station 1952 


124 


-234 


-25 


74 


BID 


Bissau 


-173 


253 


27 


75 


IBE 


Bellevue(IGN) 


-127 


-769 


472 


76 


BOO 


Bogota Observatory 


307 


304 


-318 


77 


CAZ 


Camp Area Astro 


-104 


-129 


239 


78 


CAI 


Campolnchauspe 


-148 


136 


90 


79 


CAO 


Canton Astro 1966 


298 


-304 


-375 



J-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table J-13 Continued. International 1924 Spheroid (Spheroid Code D 






Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 


80 


CHI 


Chatham 1 sland Astro 1971 


175 


-38 


113 


81 


CHU 


Chua Astro 


-134 


229 


-29 


82 


COA 


Corrego Alegre 


-206 


172 


-6 


83 


GIZ 


DOS 1968 


230 


-199 


-752 






European 1950 








84 


EAS 


Easter Island 1967 


211 


147 


111 


85 


EUR-M 


[Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, 
France, Federal Republic of Germany*, 
Gibraltar, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, 
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, 
Sweden, Switzerland] *Prior to 1J anuary 
1993 


-87 


-98 


-121 


86 


EUR-K 


[England, Ireland, Scotland Channel, and 
Shetland Islands] 


-86 


-96 


-120 


87 


EUR-S 


[Iraq, Israel, J ordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, 
Saudi Arabia, Syria] 


-103 


-106 


-141 


88 


EUR-E 


Cyprus 


-104 


-101 


-140 


89 


EUR-F 


Egypt 


-130 


-117 


-151 


90 


EUR-H 


Iran 


-117 


-132 


-164 


91 


EUR-L 


Malta 


-107 


-88 


-149 


92 


EUS 


European 1979 












[Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Norway, 
Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland] 


-86 


-98 


-119 


93 


GAA 


Gan 1970 


-133 


-321 


50 


94 


GEO 


Geodetic Datum 1949 


84 


-22 


209 


95 


GRA 


Graciosa BaseSW 1948 


-104 


167 


-38 


96 


DOB 


GU XI Astro 


252 


-209 


-751 


97 


HEN 


Herat North 


-333 


-222 


114 


98 


HJO 


Hjorsey 1955 


-73 


46 


-86 


99 


HKD 


Hong Kong 1963 


-156 


-271 


-189 


100 


HTN 


Hu-Tzu-Shan 


-637 


-549 


-203 


101 


ISG 


1 STS 061 Astro 1968 


-794 


119 


-298 


102 


1ST 


1 STS 073 Astro 1969 


208 


-435 


-229 


103 


J OH 


J ohnston Island 1961 


189 


-79 


-202 


104 


KEG 


Kerguelen Island 1949 


145 


-187 


103 


105 


KUS 


Kusaie Astro 1951 


647 


1777 


-1124 


106 


MID 


Midway Astro 1961 


912 


-58 


1227 


107 


NAP 


Naparima, British West Indies 


-10 


375 


165 


108 


FLO 


Observatorio Meteorologico 1939 


-425 


-169 


81 


109 


PLN 


Pico de las Nieves 


-307 


-92 


127 


110 


PIT 


Pitcairn Astro 1967 


185 


165 


42 


111 


POS 


Porto Santo 1936 


-499 


-249 


314 


112 


PRP-M 


Provisional South American 1956 


-288 


175 


-376 



J-6 



Table J-13 Continued. International 1924 Spheroid (Spheroid Code D) 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 


113 


HIT 


Provisional South Chilean 1963 


16 


196 


93 


114 


QAT 


Qatar National 


-128 


-283 


22 


115 


QUO 


Qornoq 


164 


138 


-189 


116 


REU 


Reunion 


94 


-948 


-1262 


117 


MOD 


Rome 1940 


-225 


-65 


9 


118 


SAO 


SaoBraz 


-203 


141 


53 


119 


SAE 


Santo (DOS) 1965 


170 


42 


84 


120 


SAP 


Sapper Hill 1943 


-355 


21 


72 


121 


SGM 


Selvagem Grande 1938 


-289 


-124 


60 


122 


TAN 


Tananarive Observatory 1925 


-189 


-242 


-91 


123 


TDC 


Tristan Astro 1968 


-632 


438 


-609 


124 


WAK 


Wake Island Astro 1952 


276 


-57 


149 


125 


YAC 


Yacare 


-155 


171 


37 


126 


ZAN 


Zanderij 


-265 


120 


-358 



Table J-14. Krassovsky 1940 Spheroid (Spheroid Code E) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Krassovsky 1940 Spheroid 








127 


AFG 


Afgooye 


-43 


-163 


45 



Table J-15. Modified Fisher 1960 Spheroid (Spheroid Code F) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






Modified Fisher 1960 Spheroid 








128 


SOA 


South Asia 


7 


-10 


-26 



Table J-16. South American 1969 Spheroid (Spheroid Code G) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






South American 1969 Spheroid 








129 


SAN-M 


South American 1969 


-57 


1 


-41 



Table J-17. World Geodetic System (WGS) 72 Spheroid (Spheroid Code H) 



J-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






WGS 72 Spheroid 








130 


WD 


WGS 72 











Table J-18. WGS 84 Spheroid (Spheroid Code I) 


Local Geodetic Datums 


Transformation 
Parameters 


Local 
ID Code 


Local ID 
(Display) 


Datum 


Delta 
X 


Delta 
Y 


Delta 

Z 






WGS 84 Spheroid 








131 


WE 


WGS 84 












J-8 



Appendix K 

M93 Chronograph Muzzle Velocity System 

This appendix describes the M93 chronograph MVS operations and 
procedures for calibrating or updating current MVVs for the COS, POC, 
and platoon leadership per TM 9-2350-314-10. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

K-l. The MVS is a MV measurement system, which operates on the Doppler 
principle. The system is based on a X-band transceiver and a M V processor. 
The purpose of the M93 MVS is to provide an accurate MV reading for a 
projectile fired from the howitzer. The M93 MVS is designed to communicate 
measured projectile velocities via a military standard-1533 data bus to the 
AFCS. This information can be used to provide a reasonable estimate of the 
average M V for rounds to be fired for a new fire mission; thereby improving 
the possibility of a first round hit on the target. 

K-2. The MVS consists of the following components (Figure K-l): 

• M 93 radar antenna transceiver. 

• W92 power/data cable. 

• Mounting bracket with 1553 bus terminator and storage connector. 

• W93 (1553 bus) cable assembly (connects MVS to AFCS). 

K-3. When not in use, the MVS can remain installed on the howitzer. If the 
MVS is not mounted on the howitzer, ensure that the termination connector 
is installed on the wiring harness W93 connector at the MVS mounting 
bracket. If the MVS must be stored it will be I AW TM 9-2350-314-10. The 
MVS must be re-installed prior to turning on the vehicle master switch. 

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION 

K-4. The M93 MVS is designed to withstand adverse conditions, which may 
be present during storage and operation. The M 93 MVS will function properly 
without degradation under the following conditions: 

• Operating temperatures from -50 to +125 degrees Fahrenheit. 

• Storage temperatures from -50 to +150 degrees Fahrenheit. 

• 0to95 percent relative humidity, including condensation. 

• Shocks and vibrations present during firing and transport. 

• High altitude during air transport. 

• Rain, wind, sand, and dust. 

• Solar radiation (direct sunlight). 

• Salt and fog. 

• Environments leading to growth of fungus. 



K-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



WS? PDWEFVDATA 



BRACKET v^ 





MHIFUCAR 



:1 



1 553 Tefimina-ctj 
CONlnECTlCfl IN STCW^GE 






WOfl HUWJEEB — ^_J 



m 



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, 



^ 



U,-: 



TZZZZZZZZZZl^/ 



Wm 



1553 IrHWINVlON 
COSNFC-OniKSTALLEQ 





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K3 



Figure K-l. M93 Muzzle Velocity System 



INSTALLATION 
13B COS 



K-5. Note: The MVS should be installed before all missions and must be 
connected prior to AFCS initialization. 

• I nsure vehicle master power switch is in the "off" position. 

• Inspect M93 radar antenna head for any damage. Install antenna bracket 
on mounting bracket. 

• Remove 1553 bus terminator from W93 cable connector and connect to 
the storage connector. 



K-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

• I nspect all connectors for bent pins. 

• Ensure proper cable connections. Inspect W92 cable to M93 radar 
antenna and W93 cable connector. 

OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE 
COS DUTIES 

• Power up the AFCS. 

• Check AFCS status. 

• I nitialize AFCS. 

• Enter extended propellant lots. (Note: To use the MVS, you must have an 
extended propellant lot code in the AFCS ammunition inventory.) 

• Enter minimum number of rounds for MVV calculation as directed by the 
TSOP. 

• Prepare for POC BCS to send fire missions digitally. 

K-6. Note: The AFCS will calculate a solution; the AFCS will report a MVV to 
the POC if certain requirements are met: 

• AFCS processing a new MVV. 

• Deletion of a MVV. 

• +1-2 meters per second change from previous MVV. 

K-7. The AFCS must detect readings within +/- 100 meters per second from 
standard. Additionally, the AFCS will not generate a MVV unless the "MVV 
ROUND" entry has been met or exceeded. The AFCS sends the MVV 
automatically to the POC BCS. Once the AFCS receives acknowledgment 
from the BCS the system will apply the new MVV to the database. 

TROUBLESHOOTING 

MVS NOT DETECTED DURING AFCS POWER UP 

K-8. Power up status screen shows two dash marks (--) in status column. 



Procedures 



K-9. First. 

• Check that MVS radar antenna is installed correctly. 

• Check W92 cable connections at MVS antenna and at the W93 cable 
connector 

• Check W92 cable for damage. 

K-10. Second. 

• Power down AFCS by ensuring the DU power switch is placed in the "off" 
position. 

• Ensure the vehicle master power switch is in the "off" position. 

• Disconnect W92 cable and check for bent or broken pins or damage to 
connectors. 

• Connect 1553 termination connector to the W93 harness. 

• Start operational sequence power up status for MVS is "OK". 

• Power down completely. 



K-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Reconnect W92 cable and recycle power. If problem exists notify unit 
maintenance. 

• Start operational sequence. If problem exists notify unit maintenance. 

NO MVV ACQUIRED 

• Step 1. Was "EOM"senttotheAFCS? 

• Step 2. Was the "MVV ROUNDS" set to the minimum required? 

• Step 3. Was the required minimum number of rounds fired? 

• Step 4. Did the AFCS use the same type of ammunition combination and 
quantity required by the BCS for thefire mission? 

• Step 5. Check last mission data to verify if reading was taken. 

MVS DECREMENTS ROUNDS PREMATURELY WHEN BREECH IS CLOSED 

• When this occurs, no useful MVV data can be gathered. 

• Request guidance from POC regarding completion of fire mission. 

• Turn in MVS to unit maintenance for repair/replacement. 

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURES FOR CALIBRATION 

K-ll. Note: Before powering up the howitzer, inspect and connect the M 93 
MVS cables and head. 

• InitializetheAFCS at a SCP. 

• Receive a move order to a firing area and perform occupation procedures. 

• Do a navigation update at a SCP (if necessary) 

• Receive BCS PROVIDED AMMO from POC (one time only). 

• Enter/verify extended lot for propellant. 

• Set MVV ROUNDS as directed. 

• Enter current propellant temperature. 

• POC will request MVVs from AFCS (transparent to operator). 

• From SET UP AND INFORMATION menu, select AFCS STATUS and 
ensure MVS is operational. 

• From MAINTENANCE menu, select BORE SIGHT entry and verify the 
AZ offset, roll offset, and the elevation offset against the DA Form 2408-4 
Weapon Record Data (platoon sergeant is responsible for checking this 
data). 

• Ensure borescopeand pullover has been performed. 

• Ensure a minimum of 50 meters between guns. 

• Once everything is verified, conduct fire missions. (POC sends a WHEN 
READY digital fire mission). 

• To view the MV acquired on the AFCS, EOM must first be sent. At EOM 
gotoSETUP AND INFORMATION menu. Select MUZZLE VELOCITY 
and then select VIEW LAST M I SSI ON DATA. 

K-12. Note: For a more accurate MVV, ensure the tube is warm or a warm up 
round has been fired. 



K-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



PLATOON LEADERSHIP ACTIONS 

K-13. The following is a checklist (Table K-l) that assists the platoon 
leadership in obtaining MVs. It is imperative that each of the steps be 
followed to allow for greater probability of obtaining usable MVs whether at a 
dedicated calibration siteor updating MVVs during a live firing exercise. 



Table K-1. Muzzle Velocity Checklist 



PLATOON 


GUN 1 


GUN 2 


GUN 3 


M93CONNECTED 
(PRIOR TO POWER UP) 








NAV POSITION UPDATE 
(VERIFY PLGR FIGURE OF 
MERIT 1) 








ROUNDS, FUZES (BCS 
PROVIDES), VERIFY 








POWDER TEMPERATURE 








MVV ROUNDS (1-9) (UNIT 
TSOP) 








SELECT AFCS STATUS AND 
ENSURE MVS IS 
OPERATIONAL 








BORESIGHT ENTRY 








VERIFICATION MISSION 









POC RESPONSIBILITIES 

K-14. The POC's main responsibility during the operation of the M93 is to 
verify and record all information reported from the AFCS. The POC will 
verify that communication is established by requesting MVVs from the AFCS. 
There are different methods for obtaining MVVs from the AFCS. The POC 
FDC chief and/or FDO must decide the preferred method: 

INITIAL CALIBRATION (NO PREVIOUS MVVs RECORDED) 

• Ensure MVVs aredeleted from the AFCS. 

• Gun must delete by date time group, projectile, and propellant lot. 

• POC will request MVVs from howitzer to verify deletion. 

• Delete MVVs in POC database. 

Note. To ensure that the AFCS has no MVVs, the POC can send a MVV table 
to the AFCS with a non-existing shell/fuze combination set with a MVV 
reading of 0.0. A blank table cannot be sent to the AFCS. (There must be at 
least one entry in the MVV table.) 

PREVIOUS MVVs ALREADY RECORDED AND DESIRED LOT TO MEASURE HAS NO 
MVV 

• Verify previous MVVs on AFCS and BCS with recorded historical data. 



K-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



• Verify lot has no previous MVV in AFCS and LCU database based on 
AFCS ammunition entered. 

PREVIOUS MVVs ALREADY RECORDED AND DESIRED LOT TO MEASURE HAS 
PREVIOUS MW 

• Verify previous MVVs on AFCS and BCS with recorded historical data. 

Note: A new MVV will not be generated unless there is a change of ■+/- 2.0 
meters per second from recorded MVV. 

K-15. The POC will then send BCS provided AMMO (if not already done). 
Once AFCS has received the AMMO and the operator has had time to 
execute, the POC will request AMMO to verify it has been received. The POC 
will then verify that the AFCS has extended lot designators and the MVS 
round count has been set to appropriate setting. The POC is now ready to 
send a mission with the appropriate round count. 

K-16. Upon EOM the AFCS will send a MVV as long ascertain requirements 
are met: 

• AFCS calculates a new MVV 

• Change in 2 meters per second from previously recorded MVV. 

K-17. Once the AFCS receives an acknowledgment from the BCS, the MVV 
will be stored. If there is no acknowledgement from the BCS the MVV will not 
be stored on the AFCS. Once the BCS receives the MVV in the INPUT queue, 
the MVV should be displayed and verified by the FDC chief and FDO. Once 
the MVV has been verified the LCU operator will execute the MVV and the 
FDO will record it. The POC will request the MVV from the AFCS to verify 
proper MVV and will conduct a verification mission 

K-18. Note: A MVV that is stored on the AFCS will be applied toother MVVs 
from 3 charges up to 3 charges down, as long as there are no MVVs for that 
shell/propel I ant combination, (e.g., If charge 6W HEA has recorded MVVs and 
a charge 5W HEA is being shot with no MVVs, the AFCS will apply the 
charge 6W to the 5W to get the most accurate data. If all requirements are 
met with the MVS a MVV for the 5w should be generated and sent to the 
POC.) 

K-19. The POC M93 operation checklist is provided at Table K-2. For 
troubleshooting procedures for faults found, refer to Table K -3. 



K-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table K-2. POC M93 Operation Checklist 



PROCEDURE 


COMPLETED 


VERIFY COMMUNICATIONS 




VERIFY MVVsON AFCS AND BCS DATABASE ARE CURRENT 




SEND BCS PROVIDED TO AFCS 




VERIFY EXTENDED LOT DESIGNATORS 1 N AFCS 




VERIFY MVS ROUND COUNT IN AFCS BY VOICE 




SEND MISSION WITH APPROPRIATE ROUND COUNT 




VERIFY MVV RECEIVED FROM AFCS (FDC CHIEF AND FDO) 




PROCESS MVV (EXECUTE) 




RECORD MVV 




VERIFICATION MISSION 





Table K-3. POC M93 Operation Troubleshooting Procedures 



VERIFY COMMUNICATIONS 


Verify initialization parameters in AFCS and LCU 
database. Verify radio frequencies and setting. Try voice 
on digital radio. 


VERIFY MVVsIN DATABASE 
IN AFCS AND LCU 


Verify that all MVVs are current from previously recorded 
MVVs (MVV book). 


SEND BCSPROVIDEDTO 
AFCS 


Verify lots sent to gun are correct and match ammunition 
inventory. 


VERIFY EXTENDED LOT 
DESIGNATORS IN AFCS 


Request MVVs from AFCS and verify extended lot 
designators. 


VERIFY MVS ROUND COUNT 
IN AFCS 


Make sure that MVS round count is equal to or greater 
than the mission fired count. 


SEND MISSION WITH 
APPROPRIATE ROUND 
COUNT 


If mission does not have appropriate rounds a MVV will 
not be generated. 


VERIFY MVV RECEIVED 
FROM AFCS (FDCCHIEF AND 
FDO) 


Verify that MVV received is accurate. If the MVV is 
invalid, then delete the MVV by propellant lot from the 
AFCS. 


RECORD MVV 


The battalion and batteries should keep a detailed record 
of all MVVs for each weapon. 



K-7 



Appendix L 

Sample Precombat Checks 

The tables in this appendix provide sample precombat checks (PCCs) for 
Paladin mission and survivability preparations a battery will execute. 
These checklists may be used in a variety of situations and are not 
intended to replace unit TSOPs or other system(s) designed to track and 
report the status/progress of a unit. By incorporating some version of 
these sample PCCs into operations, the commander can more efficiently 
communicate exactly what must be done. For example, it is easier to 
direct the Paladin section to complete the SCATMINE PCC than to 
individually specify all thesubtasks required. 

SURVIVABILITY PCCs 

Table L-1. NBC Operations 



SECTION: 

M256 KIT ON HAND 

M11/M13 DECONTAMINATION APPARATUS ON HAND 

MASKS AND HOODS FITTED AND CHECKED 

MOPP GEAR INVENTORIED AND ACCESSIBLE 

ALL NONESSENTIAL EQUI PMENT STOWED AND ALL EQUI PMENT COVERED 

SURVEY TEAM I DENTI Fl ED AND REHEARSED 

ANTIDOTE KITS ON HAND 

REHEARSE BUDDY AID PROCEDURES 

REVIEW HASTY DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES 

PLATOON: 

PMCS AND EMPLACE M8ALARMS 

REHEARSE NBC REACTION DRILL ANDTEAMS 

CHECK BOC PLOTTING CHEMICAL DOWNWIND MESSAGES AND REPORTING 

NBC HAZARD LOCATIONS TO ALL LEADERS 

REHEARSE CONTAM I NATE D CASUALTY EVACUATION (CASE VAC) 

COORDINATE DELIBERATE DECONTAMINATION PLAN WITH BATTALION 

MAP WITH CONTAMINATED ROUTES IN CASEVAC VEHICLE 

BOC HAS ALL MOPP EQU I PMENT SIZES FOR REORDER 

EXTRA FILTERS AND EXPENDABLES ON HAND 



L-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-2. Air Threat 



SECTION: 

SETM2HEADSPACE AND TIMING 

CLEAN M2 

TEST FIRE M2(AS DIRECTED) 

PRACTICE CHANGING M2 BARRELS 

PRACTICE STOPPAGE AND I IMMEDIATE ACTION DRILLS 

RANGE CARD ON HAND WITH AIRTRPs 

REVIEW AIRCRAFT THREAT CARDS 

REVIEW BATTERY AIR ATTACK SIGNALS 

CHECK CAMOUFLAGE: 

- NETS SERVICEABLE/COVER VEHICLES 

-WINDSHIELDS, LIGHTS COVERED 

-NETS OFF M2 

VERIFY AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY (ADA) WARNI NG WITH COS 

VERIFY SIGNAL FLAGS ARE ON HAND 

REHEARSE ADA MOVEMENT DRILLS 

REPORT COMPLETION OR PROBLEMS TO PLATOON SGT 

PLATOON: 

ASSIGN AIR SECTORS OF FIRE 

ESTABLISH AIRTRPs 

VERIFY COVERAGE ON DEFENSE DIAGRAM 

ISSUE ADA WARNING TO COS 

CONDUCT AIR ATTACK REHEARSAL 

CONDUCT CASEVAC PCC 

POSITION OFF AIR AVENUES OF APPROACH 

MAXIMIZE DISPERSION 

COORDINATE FOR ADA COVERAGE WITH TOC 



L-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-3. Counterfire Threat 



SECTION: 

SURVIVABILITY POSITIONS DUG FOR EVERY SOLDIER 

OVERHEAD COVER FOR EVERY SOLDIER 

VERIFY AND RECONNOITER ALTERNATE POSITION AND ROUTE 

SANDBAG COLLIMATOR AND BURY WIRE 

CRATER ANALYSIS TEAM I DENTI Fl ED AND TRAI NED 

REHEARSE HASTY DISPLACEMENT DRILL 

REHEARSE HASTY OCCUPATION 

CHECK CAMOUFLAGE (I F THREAT IS VISUAL) 

-NETS SERVICE ABLE/COVER VEHICLES 

-WINDSHIELDS, LIGHTS COVERED 

INVENTORY AID BAG AND LITTERS 

MINIMIZE EQUIPMENT ON THE GROUND 

REPORT COMPLETION OR PROBLEMS TO PLATOON SERGEANT 

PLATOON: 

MAXIMIZE DISPERSION 

POSITION IN DEFILADE, BUT AVOID HIGH ANGLE 

REQUEST ENGINEER SUPPORT 

IDENTIFY IMMEDIATE ACTION STATUS 

IDENTIFY VOLLEY TO MOVE CRITERIA 

FULLY PREPARE ALTERNATE POSITION 

REQUEST CRITICAL FRIENDLY ZONE FOR BATTERY 

CONDUCT CASEVAC PCC 

REHEARSE HASTY DISPLACEMENT AND OCCUPATION 

CHECK CLASS IV ON HAND 



L-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-4. Mounted Ground Threat 



SECTION: 

SECTOR MARKED (DAY OR NIGHT) FOR CREW SERVED WEAPONS AND 

HOWITZER 

MEASURE/OBTAIN RANGESTO DEAD SPACE, KEY TERRAI N, AND TRPs 

SIGHT AND COMPUTE DATA TO TRPs FROM ALL WEAPONS 

COMPLETE RANGE CARDS FOR CREW SERVED WEAPONS, HOWITZER, AND 

AT-4 

REHEARSE DIRECT FIRE CREW DRILL 

PLAN KILLERJ UNIOR FOR DEAD SPACE 

PMCS/FUNCTIONS CHECK ALL WEAPONS 

PMCS/FUNCTIONSCHECK ALL NIGHT SIGHTS/NIGHT VISION GOGGLES 

AMMUNITION ON HAND FOR ALL WEAPONS 

FIGHTING POSITIONSCOMPLETE WITH OVERHEAD COVER 

REVIEW THREAT VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION 

VERIFY BORESIGHTON DF TELESCOPE 

REPORT COMPLETION OR PROBLEMS TO PLATOON SERGEANT 

PLATOON: 

POSITION OFF ENEMY AVENUESOF APPROACH 

ESTABLISH BATTERY ENGAGEMENT AREA WITH TRIGGERS AND TRPs 

IDENTIFY NATURAL TRPs OR EM PLACE TRPs; SURVEY TRPs 

FDC COMPUTES RANGE AND AZIMUTH TO EACH TRP 

FDC COMPUTESSELF ILLUMINATION TARGETS 

POSITION WEAPONSTO MAXIMIZE FIRES IN ENGAGEMENT AREAS 

REHEARSE TANK Kl LLER TEAMS AND REACTION FORCE 

REHEARSE CASEVAC 



Table L-5. Dismounted Threat 



SAME AS MOUNTED GROUNDTHREAT PCC EXCEPT: 
PLATOON: 

USE FORMATION TO MAXIMIZE PERIMETER SECURITY 

USE DEFENSIVE WIRE 

FOCUS ON 6400 MIL SECURITY 

USE PATROLLING 



L-4 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-6. CASEVAC Operations 



SECTION: 

COMBAT LIFESAVER BAGS COMPLETE 

CASUALTY COLLECTION POI NT I DENTI Fl ED AND BRIEFED 

LITTERS LOCATED AND CROSS LOADED 

STRAPSANDTIEDOWNSWITH THE LITTERS 

VERIFY COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE BOC 

VERIFY BATTLE ROSTER FOR ALL PERSONNEL 

DA FORM 1155/1156 FILLED OUT AND IN AID POUCH 

REHEARSE BUDDY AID PROCEDURES 

ACCOUNT FOR SECTION PERSONNEL IN AND OUT OF POSITION 

PLATOON: 

PRECOMBAT INSPECTION (PCI)SECTION CHECKS 

REHEARSE CASEVAC IN EACH POSITION 

IDENTIFY BOC REPRESENTATIVE TO COLLECT BATTLE ROSTER AT CASUALTY 

COLLECTION POINT 
CONDUCT COMMUNICATIONS CHECKS ON A/L WITH BATTALION AND WITH 

CASEVAC VEHICLE 
ENSURE BOC UPDATES AND Dl SSEMI NATES ALL ACTIVE AMBULANCE 

EXCHANGE POI NTS TO LEADERS 

MAP WITH AMBULANCE EXCHANGE POINTS IN CASEVAC VEHICLE 



PCCsTO SUPPORT ESSENTIAL FIELD ARTILLERY TASKS 

Table L-7. SCATMINE 



SECTION: 

SCATMINE DISTRIBUTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH FDC GUIDANCE; REPORT 

NUMBER OF RAAMSs AND ADAM s 

CORRECT FUZESAND POWDERS ON HAND; LOTS REPORTEDTO FDC 

AMMUNITION LOADED IN ACCORDANCE WITH PLAN: SHOOT FROM GROUND, 

AMMUNITION VEHICLE, OR GUN? 

CONDUCT FULL-UP REHEARSAL 

SURVIVABILITY MOVE PLAN REHEARSED 

COUNTERFIRE REACTION DRILL REHEARSED 

FDC: 

COMPUTE AIMPOINTS 

DIRECT AMMUNITION BREAKDOWN BY GUN AND VERI FY 

CONDUCT FULL-UP TECHNICAL REHEARSAL; REPORT REHEARSED 

EMPLACEMENT TIME TO BATTALION S3 

PLOT AIMPOINTS ON CHART AND VERI FY 

PLATOON/BATTERY: 

PREPARE ALTERNATE POSITION COMPLETELY 

BRIEF IMMEDIATE ACTION STATUS 



L-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-8. Copperhead 



SECTION: 

COPPERHEAD TRAINER ON HAND 

EXECUTE DRY FIRE MISSION AND ROUND INSPECTION IAW PLATOON 

LEADER'S TIMELINE 

INSPECT ACTUAL COPPERHEAD IAW-10TM 

VERIFY AND REPORT POWDER TEMPERATURE IN ACCORDANCE WITH 

PLATOON LEADER'S TIMELINE 

CAPTURE MVV; RECEIVE EXPECTED MV FROM FDC 

VERIFY PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY (PRF)CODE WITH FDC 

PLATOON: 

ESTABLISH COPPERHEAD Tl M ELI NE FROM TRAINER REHEARSAL TO READY 

TOFIRE TIME 

CON DUCT VERIFICATION MISSION AFTER MET OR OTHER CHANGES 

VERIFY PRF CODE WITH OBSERVER 

VERIFY ANGLE T <800MILS 



Table L-9. Smoke 



SECTION: 

AMMUNITION DISTRIBUTED IAW FDC GUI DANCE; REPORT NUMBER OF 

ROUNDS BY LOT 

CORRECT FUZESAND POWDERS ON HAND AND REPORTEDTO FDC 

AMMUNITION LOADED IN ACCORDANCE WITH PLAN SEGREGATED BY LOT 

CONDUCT FULL-UP REHEARSAL 

SURVIVABILITY MOVE PLAN REHEARSED 

COUNTERFIRE REACTION DRILL REHEARSED 

FDC: 

VERIFY AIM POINTS, PLOT AND CHECK FOR I NTERVENI NG CRESTS 

RANGE VERIFIED FOR PROPELLANT DISTRIBUTED 

ENSURE M 825 WORKAROUND CONDUCTED PROPERLY 

SITE VERIFIED (NO GUNS HAVE A SITE TO CREST ISSUE) 

DIRECT AMMUNITION BREAKDOWN BY GUN AND LOT; VERIFY WITH 

PLATOON SERGEANT/PLATOON LEADER 
CONDUCT FULL-UPTECHNICAL REHEARSAL; REPORT REHEARSED Tl ME TO 

BATTALION S3/FDO 

COMPENSATE FOR ALL NONSTANDARD CONDITIONS 

PLATOON/BATTERY: 

PREPARE ALTERNATE POSITION COMPLETELY 

BRIEF IMMEDIATE ACTION STATUS 



L-6 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-10. Massing 



SECTION: 

AMMUNITION DISTRIBUTED I AW FDC GUI DANCE; REPORT NUMBER OF 

ROUNDS BY LOT 

CORRECT FUZESAND POWDERS ON HAND AND REPORTEDTO FDC 

AMMUNITION LOADED IAW PLAN SEGREGATED BY LOT 

CONDUCT FULL-UP REHEARSAL 

MEASURE AND REPORT POWDER TEMPERATURE OF MASSING LOT EVERY 30 

MINUTES 

REHEARSE CHANGI NG Al Ml NG REFERENCE POINTS 

STORE MASSINGAMMUNITION UNIFORMLY 

VERIFY BORESIGHT 

FDC: 

DETERMINE AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS 

DIRECT AMMUNITION BREAKDOWN BY GUN AND LOT; VERIFY WITH 

PLATOON SERGEANT/PLATOON LEADER 
CONDUCT FULL-UPTECHNICAL REHEARSAL; REPORT REHEARSED Tl ME TO 

BATTALION S3/FDO 
COMPENSATE FOR ALL NONSTANDARD CONDITIONS; MEET REQU I RE ME NTS 

FOR ACCURATE PREDICTED FIRE 
PLATOON/BATTERY: 

PREPARE ALTERNATE POSITION COMPLETELY 

BRIEF IMMEDIATE ACTION STATUS 

SURVEY IN POSITION AND GUNS 

VERIFY UNIFORM STORAGE OF MASSING LOTS 



L-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-11. Artillery Raid 



SECTION: 

AMMUNITION LOADED IAW MISSION 

CONDUCT MAP RECONNAISSANCE OF ROUTE AND POSITION 

BRIEF ROUTE TO ALL PERSONNEL 

RECOVERY PLAN UNDERSTOOD 

TARGETS BRIEFED AND REHEARSED WITH FDC 

ALL VE HI CLES TOPPED OFF WITH FUEL 

PMCSVEHICLESAND HOWITZERS 

MOVEMENT FORMATION PLAN REHEARSED 

DO THREAT PCC FOR LI KELY THREATS 

CHECK ALL NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NIGHT SIGHTS, AND LIGHTING DEVICES 

(IN SECTION COLOR) 
PLATOON: 
RECONNOITER (MINIMUM MAP RECONNAISSANCE) ROUTE AND POSITION 

AREA; BRIEF LEADER'S 

PLAN IN DETAIL 
CONDUCT IPB OF POSITION AREA WITH S2; Dl RECT APPROPRIATE THREAT 

PCCs 

VERIFY RECOVERY PLAN 

REHEARSE CASEVAC PLAN 

TAKE MISSION ESSENTIAL VEHICLES ONLY 

VERIFY SURVEY PLAN FOR UNIT AND RADAR 

PLAN ANDTRACK REQUIRED LOGISTICS SUPPORT 

REHEARSE SECURITY PLAN 

REHEARSE ACTIONS ON OBJ ECTIVE 



L-8 



PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT PCCs 

Table L-12. INDIVIDUAL PREPARATION FOR COMBAT 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



LOAD-BEARING EQUI PMENT COMPLETE 

FIRST AID PACKET COMPLETE 

EARPLUGS 

CANTEEN FULL W/M17 DRI NKI NG CAP 

HELMET W/CAMOUFLAGE COVERAND BAND 

WEAPONS ZERO 

DA 1156 CASUALTY FEEDER W/ BATTLE ROSTER 

DA 1155 Wl TN E SS STATE M E NT 

FLACK VEST 

FLASH LIGHT W/FILTERS AND BATTERIES 

NBC INDIVIDUAL EQUI PMENT SERVICEABLE: 

PROTECTIVE MASK W/CARRIER 

OPTICAL INSERTS (IF REQUIRED) 

ANTI-FOGGING KIT 

HOOD 

CHEMICAL COVER 

M258A1 DECONTAMINATION KIT 

M8/M 9 DETECTOR PAPER 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING (SUIT, BOOTS, GLOVES) 

CURRENT MOPP IMPLEMENTED 

INDIVIDUAL WEAPON W/LOADED MAGAZINES 

AND BASIC LOAD OF AMMUNITION 
IDENTIFICATION TAGS AROUND NECK 
IDENTIFICATION CARD 
DRIVER'S LICENSE 
CHALLENGE AND PASSWORD CONFI RMED 



Table L-13. First Sergeant 



INDIVIDUAL PCIsCOMPLETED (SUPPORT PERSONNEL) 

LP/OP BRIEFED/POSITIONED 

BATTERY DEFENSE CHECKED 

FIELD SANITATION ENFORCED 

HELIPAD IDENTIFIED/MARKED 

CASUALTY COLLECTION POI NT I DENTI Fl ED 

ACCOUNTABILITY OF PERSONNEL TO ALOC 

ACCOUNTABILITY OF SENSITIVE ITEMSTO ALOC 

VEHICLE STATUS TO ALOC 



Table L-14. Platoon Leader 



L-9 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



STAND TO: 

SITUATION BRIEF 

CHALLENGE/PASSWORD 



TableL-15. 


Platoon 


Sergeant 


VERIFY PERIMETER DEFENSE 






LP/OPsCHECKED 

EARLY WARNING DEVICES 



Table L-16. Gunnery Sergeant 


ACCOUNTABILITY OF AIMING CIRCLES 


ADVANCE PARTY BAGS COMPLETE 



Table L-17. Chief of Section 



FIGHTING/SURVIVABILITY POSITION: 

INDIVIDUAL PCIsCOMPLETED 

M 2/M 60/M 19 PCI s COMPLETE 

RANGE CARD PREPARED 

AIMING STAKES IN PLACE 

FLANK AND OVERHEAD COVER IN GOOD REPAIR 

GRENADE SUMP CLEAN AND FREE OF DEBRIS 

BRIEF ON SITUATION 

CONFIRM CHALLENGE AND PASSWORD 

PERSONNEL ACCOUNTABILITY 

SENSITIVE ITEMS 

VEHICLE STATUS 

WEAPONS STATUS 

CAMOUFLAGE: 

ALL VEHICLES/ EQUIPMENT/ POSITIONS 

NETS NOTTOUCHING 

GLASS AND Ml RRORS COVERED 

LOAD PLAN CHECKED 



L-10 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-18. Howitzer Section Chief 



PMCS: 



I NTE RCOM MUNI CATI ON SYSTE M 

HYDRAULIC POWER PACK 

REPLENISHER SYSTEM PRESSURE (17-24PSL 

RECUPERATOR 

RECOIL SYSTEM 

VERIFY AMMUNITION COUNT ON DA FORM 4513 
SEND CURRENT AM MUNITION COUNTTOFDC 
SEND POWDERTEMPERATURE TO FDC 



Table L-19. Gunner 



PMCS: 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER BOTTLES 

TRAVERSING MECHANISM 

ELEVATING MECHANISM 

TELESCOPE MOUNT M145 

PANORAMIC TELESCOPE 

COLLIMATOR 

REFERENCE POI NTS VERI Fl ED 

PRIORITY TARGET DATA RECORDED 

VERIFY BORESIGHT WITH M140 ALIGNMENT DEVICE 



Table L-20. Number One Cannoneer 



PMCS: 



RAMMER 

BREECH OPENING CAM AND ROLLERS 

FIRING MECHANISM, FIRING BLOCK ASSEMBLY 

PRIMERCHAMBER 

BREECHBLOCK 

OBTURATOR SPINDLE 

IDENTIFY TUBE CONDITION 



Table L-21. Number Two Cannoneer 


PMCS: 

BUSTLE RACK 


MUZZLE BRAKE 


M140 ALIGNMENT DEVICE 


SPADES 


AMMUNITION SEGREGATED BY LOT 


AMMUNITION COUNT 



L-11 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-22. Driver 



PMCS: 



FIXED FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

ROAD WHEELS, IDLER WHEELS, TRACK TENSION 

TRAVEL LOCK 

PARKING BRAKE 

FUEL FILTERS 

FUEL LEVEL 

COOLING SYSTEM 

ENGINE OIL LEVEL 

TRANSMISSION LEVEL 

INSTRUMENTS AND GAUGES 

STEERING 

BATTERIES 

FINAL DRIVES 



Table L-23. M2/M60/M19 Gunner 



PMCS PERFORMED 

SPARE BARRELS, CLEANING TOOLS, GLOVES AND RUPTERED-CARTRI DGE 

EXTRACTORS PRESENT 

HEAD SPACE ANDTIMING GAUGE SERVICEABLE 

HEAD SPACE AN DTI ME SET ON M2 MACHINE GUN 

MACHINE GUN PROPERLY MOUNTED TO I NLCUDE LOCK AND PINS 

FUNCTION CHECK PERFORMED 

AMMUNITION BASIC LOAD PRESENT 

RANGE CARD PREPARED 

VERIFY LEFT AND RIGHT LIMITS 



L-12 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-24. Vehicle Preparation for Combat 



DRIVER: 

PMCS PERFORMED 

TOPPED OFF 

LOAD PLAN PRESENT 

LOADED ACCORDING TO LOAD PLAN 

POL PACKAGED PRODUCTS (I NCLUDI NG WEAPONS 01 L) 

WATER CAN FULL 

M RE/RATI ON S STOWE D 

WEAPONSCLEANING KITS 

ON-VEHICLE MATERIAL (OVM)CLEAN AND SERIVCEABLE 

BASIC ISSUE ITEMS PRESENT 

SPARE TRACK BLOCKS 

FIRST AID KITS COMPLETE 

TOOLS ANDTOOL KITS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS (FIXED AND PORTABLE) SEALED, TAGGED AND 

UPDATED 

M13/M 11 DECONTAMINATION APPARATUS SERVICEABLE AND MOUNTED 

2-4 QUARTS OF DS-2A/EHICLE PRESENT 

GOGGLES 

INTERIOR CLEAN ANDORDERLY 



Table L-25. NBC Equipment: NBC Representative Check 



INDIVIDUAL PCIsCOMPLETED 

AUTOMATIC CHEMICAL AGENT ALARMS ARE EM PLACED AND OPERATIONAL 

WITH 400 METERS WD-1 WIRE 
PMCS PERFORMED ON M8A1 
M 229 REFILL KIT ISSUED FOR EACH M8A1 AUTOMATIC CHEMICAL AGENT 

ALARM 
ONE COMPLETE AND SERVICEABLE M256/M256A1 CHEMICAL AGENT 

DETECTOR KIT ISSUED PER SECTION 
IM-174SERIESRADIAC METERS ISSUED 
TWO SETS OF BATTERIES ISSUED FOR EACH IM-174 
I M-93/147 RADI AC M ETE RS (DOSI M ETE RS) I SSU E D 
GTA 3-6-2 NBC WARNING/REPORTING SYSTEM ISSUED 
PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE TABLETS AND NERVE AGENT ANTI DOTE 
AVAILABLE TO DISTRIBUTE TO PERSONNEL 
NBC MARKING SET PRESENT 
NBCTEMPLATESON HAND 





Table L-26. Medic 


INSPECT AID BAG 



L-13 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-27. Communications 



INDIVIDUAL PCIsCOMPLETED (PLATOON) 



PMCS COMPLETE: 

SPARE COMMUNICATIONSEQUIPMENT 

COMMUNICATIONS PLATOON VEHICLES 

ALL SENSITIVE ITEMS ACCOUNTED FOR 

COORDINATED PICK UP/TURN IN OF SIGNAL OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS 

COORDINATED PICK UP/TURN IN OF COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY 

EQUIPMENT 
COORDINATED PICK UP/TURN IN OF COMMUNICATIONSEQUIPMENT 



Table L-28. Fire Direction Officer 



VERIFY BCS DATA BASE: 

AFU;UPDATE 

BCS;PIECES 

AFU;BAMOUP 

AFU;REG 

MVVFILE 

MET;CM 

BCS;SWITCHES 

FIRE PLAN FILE 

TARGET KNOWN POINT FILE 

SECONDARY CHECKS MEET TOLERANCE 

DIGITALA/OICE COMMUNICATIONS WITH GUNS 

COMMUNICATIONSWITH BOC 

PRIORITY TARGETS/FPFs (UPDATED) 





Table L-29. 


Fire 


Direction Chief 


UPDATE FILE 


JTFILE 






AMMUNITION FILE 


MVVFILE 


REGISTRATION FILE 


METFILE 


TARGET KNOWN POIT 



L-14 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-30. M577 Preparation for Combat 



DRIVER: 

PMCS PERFORMED 

TOPPED OFF 

LOAD PLAN PRESENT 

LOADED ACCORDING TO LOAD PLAN 

POL PACKAGED PRODUCTS (I NCLUDI NG WEAPONS 01 L) 

WATER CAN FULL 

MEALS READY TO EAT/RATIONS STOWED 

WEAPONSCLEANING KITS 

OVM CLEAN AND SERVICEABLE 

BllsPRESENT 

SPARE TRACK BLOCKS 

FIRST AID KITS COMPLETE 

TOOLS ANDTOOL KITS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS (FIXED AND PORTABLE) SEALED, TAGGED, AND 

UPDATED 

M13/M 11 DECONTAMINATION APPARATUS SERVICEABLE AND MOUNTED 

2-4 QUARTS OF DS-2A/EHICLE PRESENT 

GOGGLES 

INTERIOR CLEAN ANDORDERLY 

I NTE RCOM MUNI CATI ON S SYSTE M 



Table L-31. Radio-Telephone Operator (Communications Equipment) 



PMCS COMPLETE: 

RADIOS 

ANTENNA 

MULTIPLEXER 

SECURE EQUIPMENT 

KYK-13 ACCOUNTED FOR/PRESENT 

CALL SIGN BOARD PRESENT/CURRENT 

PROPER FREQUENCIES SET 

MULTIPLEXER SET/TUNED 



NET CALL COMPLETE: 

FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATION NET 

FIRE DIRECTION NET 

TA-312/TA PRESENT, OPERATIONAL WITH BATTERIES 

AN/GRA-39 OPE RATI ON AL WITH BATTE Rl E S, DR-8s 

BLANK REPORT FORMS ON HAND 

SPARE EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE: 

HAND MICROPHONES 

HEADSETS 

ANTENNAS 

BATTERIES 



L-15 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 





Table L-32. 


Generator Operator 


PMCS PERFORMED 






TOPPED OFF 


PROPERLY MOUNTED 



Table L-33. Vehicle Commander 



VEHICLE PMCS COMPLETE: 

AUTOMOTIVE 

GENERATOR 

COMMUNICATIONS 

ARMAMENT 

CURRENT SOI 

GREASE/WATERPROOF MARKERS 

PEN/PENCIL 

NOTEBOOK 

BINOCULARS PRESENT/SERVICEABLE 

NIGHT VISION DEVICES PRESENT/SERVICEABLE 

SPARE BATTERIES PRESENT 

COM PASS PRESE NT/SERVICE ABLE/DECLI NATE D 

CVC HELMET OPERATIONAL 

MAP AND OVERLAY 

GOGGLES 

HEADSPACE AND Tl Ml NG CHECKED ON M2 MACHINE GUN 

VEHICLE LOAD PLAN CHECKED 



Table L-34. TOC Shift OIC 



OPERATIONS/INTELLIGENCE MAPS POSTED WITH CURRENT GRAPHICS 

UNIT STATUS CHARTS CURRENT 

TOC SHIFT BRIEFED ON CURRENT SITUATION 

ALTERNATE TOC DESIGNATED/PREPARED TO ASSUME MISSION 



TOC SHIFT BRIEF ON J UMPTOC PLAN: 

PERSONNEL IDENTIFIED 

VEHICLE/EQUIPMENT IDENTIFIED 

NEW LOCATION/ROUTE IDENTIFIED 

BATTALION PCIs COMPLETED/CORRECTIVE ACTION TAKEN: 

TOC 

A BATTERY 

B BATTERY 

C BATTERY 

COM BAT TRAINS 

FIELDTRAINS 

COMMANDER/S3INFORMEDOF PCI COMPLETION 



L-16 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Table L-35. TOC Shift NCOIC 



TOC PERSONNEL ACCOUNTED FOR 

INDIVIDUAL PCIsCOMPLETED (TOC SHIFT) 

REFERENCE MANUALS CHECKED BY LOAD PLAN 

TOC SHIFT PRESENT 

TOC SET UP TO STANDARD 

TOC OPERATIONS LOG ESTABLISHED 

TOC OPERATIONS SUPPLIES PRESENT FOR SUSTAINED OPERATIONS 

ALTERNATE TOC/CP PREPARED TO PERFORM MISSION 



TOC CONFIGURED FOR AJ UMP CAPABILITY: 

PERSONNEL 

EQUIPMENT 

SLEEP PLAN ESTABLISHED 

EFFECTIVE DOWNWIND MESSAGE/CHEMICAL DOWNWIND MESSAGE 

MESSAGE PRESENT AND DISSEMINATED IF REQUIRED 

MOPP LEVEL ESTABLISHED/DISSEMINATED 

ADA WARN I NG/WE APON S CONTROL STATU S E STABLI SH E D/DI SSE M I NATE D 



OPERATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE PCIsCOMPLETED: 

VEHICLE COMMANDERS 

RTO 

AFATDS 

REMAINING TOC PCIsCOMPLETED: 

FDC 

NBC 

SURVEY 

RADAR 

COMMUNICATIONS 

REMAINING BATTALION PCIsCOMPLETED: 

A BATTERY 

B BATTERY 

C BATTERY 

COM BAT TRAINS 

FIELDTRAINS 



Table L-36. Armament Systems Gunner 



PMCS PERFORMED 

CLEAN 

SPARE BARRELS, CLEANING TOOLS, GLOVES AND RUPTURED-CARTRIDGE 

EXTRACTORS PRESENT 
HEAD SPACE ANDTIMING GAUGE SERVICEABLE 
HEAD SPACE ANDTIMING SET ON M2 MACHINE GUN 
MACHINE GUNS PROPERLY MOUNTED TO I NCLUDE LOCK AND PINS 
FUNCTION CHECK PERFORMED 
AMMUNITION BASIC LOAD PRESENT 



L-17 



Glossary 



AAR after action review 

AC R armored caval ry regi merit 

ACU AFCS computer unit 

ADA air defense artillery 

ADAM area denial artillery munitions 

adj adjust 

adrs address 

AFATDS advanced field artillery tactical data system 

AFCS automatic fire control system 

AFES automatic fire extinguisher system 

AFSO aerial fire support observer 

AFU ammunition and fire unit 

A/L administrative and logistics 

ALOC administrative and logistics operations center 

alt altitude 

AMC at my command 

ammo ammunition 

AOF azimuth of fire 

APU auxiliary power unit 

AR Army regulation 

ARPA Archaeological Resources Protection Act 

ARTEP Army training and evaluation program 

ATC ammunition team chief 

ATHS airborne target handover system 

ATP ammunition transfer point 

AUTL Army Universal task list 

az azimuth 

BAO battalion ammunition officer 

BAS battalion aid station 

BAT be advised that 



Glossary-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

BC 


battery commander 


BCS 


battery computer system 


BDA 


battle damage assessment 


Bll 


basic issue item 


BITE 


built-in test equipment 


BMO 


battalion maintenance officer 


BMT 


battalion maintenance technician 


bn 


battalion 


BOC 


battery operations center 


BSA 


brigade support area 


BSOC 


battalion support operations center 


C2 


command and control 


CANAL L 


cancel all 


CASEVAC 


casualty evacuation 


CCL 


combat configured load 


CCP 


confidence check point 


CEP 


circular error probable 


CERCLA 


Comprehensive Environmental Response 




Liability Act 


CFC 


chloroflouro carbons 


CFF 


call for fire 


CFL 


coordinated fire line 


CFR 


Code of Federal Regulations 


chg 


charge 


CM 


computer met 


CNR 


combat net radio 


COLT 


combat observation lasing team 


comm 


communication 


comnds 


commands 


CONUS 


continental United States 


coord 


coordinate 


CP 


command post or concrete piercing (fuze) 


COS 


chief of section 


CSECT 


center sector 



Glossary-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



CSR controlled supply rate 

CSS combat service support 

CVC combat vehicle crewman 

CWA Clean Water Act 

D digital 

DA Department of the Army 

DAP distant aiming point 

DBR database recording 

DD:HH:MM day:hour:minute 

DELALL delete all 

destn destination 

df deflection 

DOT Department of Transportation 

DPICM dual-purpose improved conventional munitions 

DRMO Defense Reuti I ization Marketing Office 

DRU-H dynamic reference unit-hybrid 

DS direct support 

DTG date time group 

DU display unit 

E easting 

ECO environmental compliance office 

EFAT essential field artillery task 

EFST essential fire support task 

elev elevation 

EO executive order 

EOD explosive ordnance disposal 

EOM end of mission 

EOL end of the orienting line 

EPA Environmental Protection Agency 

EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act 

ESA Endangered Species Act 

EW electronic warfare 

FA field artillery 

FAASV field artillery ammunition support vehicle 



Glossary-3 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

FAAD 


firing area defense diagram 


FASP 


field artillery support plan 


FD 


fire direction 


FDC 


fire direction center 


FDO 


fire direction officer 


FED 


forward entry device 


FFE 


f i re for effect 


FIFRA 


Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 


FIST 


fire support team 


FLOT 


forward line of own troops 


FM 


field manual, fire mission, or frequency modulated 


FOCMD 


forward observer command 


FPF 


final protective fire 


FR 


fire request 


FRTP 


flat rack transfer point 


FSB 


forward support battalion 


FSE 


fire support element 


FSCM 


fire support coordinating measure 


FSCOORD 


fire support coordinator 


FSO 


fire support officer 


ft 


feet 


fz 


fuze 


geom 


geometry 


GPS 


global positioning system 


GRS 


geodetic reference system 


GS 


general support 


GSG 


gunnery sergeant 


GSR 


general support reinforcing 


HB 


high-burst 


HE 


high explosive 


HEMTT 


heavy expanded-mobility tactical truck 


HHB 


headquarters and headquarters battery 


HHS 


headquarters, headquarters and service battery 


HM/HW 


hazardous material/hazardous waste 



Glossary-4 



HMMWV 


high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle 


how 


howitzer 


hrs 


hours 


HTC 


howitzer tracking chart 


HTU 


hand-held terminal unit 


HQ 


headquarters 


IAW 


in accordance with 


ICM 


improved conventional munition 


id 


identification 


IFSAS 


initial fire support automation system 


in 


inch 


IP 


internet protocol 


IPB 


intelligence preparation of the battlefield 


km 


kilometer 


kw 


kilowatt 


LCU 


lightweight computer unit 


Idr 


leader 


LOGPAC 


logistics package 


LP/OP 


listening post/observation post 


LRP 


logistics release point 


LRU 


line replaceable unit 


LSECT 


left sector 


maint 


maintenance 


MAP MOD 


map modification 


MAPS 


modular azimuth positioning system 


max 


maximum 


mech 


mechanical (fuze) 


met 


meteorological 


METT-TC 


mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time 




civil considerations 


min QE 


minimum quadrant elevation 


MLRS 


multiple launch rocket system 


MMS 


meteorological measuring system 


MOPP 


mission oriented protective posture 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Glossary-5 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



MPI mean point of impact 

MSDS material safety data sheet 

MSE mobile subscriber equipment 

MSN mission 

MSR main supply route 

MSU mutual supported unit 

MTO message to observer 

MTP mission training plan 

MTSQ mechanical timesuperquick (fuze) 

MV muzzle velocity 

MVS muzzle velocity system 

MW muzzle velocity variation 

N northing 

NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 

nav navigation 

NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical 

NCO noncommissioned officer 

NCOIC NCO in charge 

NCS net control station 

NEPA National Environmental Policy Act 

NHPA National Historic Preservation Act 

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 

NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 

O&l operations and intelligence 

OBCO observer coordinates (observer location) 

obsr observer 

OCONUS outside the continental United States 

OEBGD Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document 

OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration 

OVM on-veh i cl e mater i a I 

PA position area 

PADS position azimuth determining system 

pantel panoramic telescope 

PCC precombat check 



Glossary-6 



PCI precombat inspection 

PCU power conditioner unit 

PD point detonating (fuze) 

PDIU prognostic/diagnostic interface unit 

PDSQ point detonating superquick (fuze) 

PE probable error 

PLGR precision lightweight GPS receiver 

PLS palletized load system 

pit platoon 

pltn platoon 

PMCS preventive maintenance checks and services 

POC platoon operations center 

POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants 

posn position 

PRF pulse repetition frequency 

PRI priority 

PROP propel I ant 

psi pounds per square inch 

PSNCO personnel services N CO 

PTM plain text message 

QE quadrant elevation 

R rei nforci ng 

RAAMS remote antiarmor mine system 

RAM reliability, availability, and maintainability 

RAP rocket assisted projectile 

RAT record as target 

RCRA Resource Conservation Recovery Act 

REG registration 

REQ request 

rg range 

rng range 

RPM revolutions per minute 

RSECT right sector 

R SO recon n a i ssa nee su r vey off i cer 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Glossary-7 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 

RSOP 


reconnaissance, selection, and occupation of position 


RTF 


ready to fi re 


R3SP 


rearm, refuel, resupply, and survey point 


SA 


subsequent adjust 


SARA 


Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act 


SBT 


subscriber table 


SCATMINE 


scatter able mine 


SCP 


survey control point 


sec 


second 


sect 


sector or section 


SGT 


sergeant 


SH 


shell 


shft 


shift 


SINCGARS 


single channel ground & airborne radio system 


SOP 


standing operating procedures 


SP 


self-propelled or start point 


sph 


spheroid 


sprt 


support 


STP 


soldier's training publication (soldier's manual) 


subq 


subsequent 


surv 


surveillance 


sys 


system 


TA 


target acquisition 


TAA 


tactical assembly area 


TC 


track commander or training circular 


temp 


temperature 


TGT 


target 


ti 


time 


TLP 


troop leading procedure 


TM 


technical manual 


TOC 


tactical operations center 


TOT 


time on target 


TRP 


target reference point 


TSOP 


tactical SOP 



Glossary-8 



TTP tactics, techniques, and procedures 

UMCP unit maintenance collection point 

URN unit reference number 

USAFAS United States Army Field Artillery School 

UTE unable to execute 

V voice 

VHF very high frequency 

VMS vehicle motion sensor 

VT variabletime 

WGS world geodetic system 

XO executi ve off i cer 

ZUPT zero velocity update 

1SG first sergeant 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



Glossary-9 



Bibliography 



SOURCES USED 

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. 

ARTEP 6-037-30-MTP. Mission Training Plan for the Consolidated Cannon 
Battery, M102, M119, ,198, M109A5, M109A6. 1 April 2000. 

FM 1-111. Aviation Brigades. 27 October 1997. 

FM 6-20-1. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for the Field Artillery Battalion 
(Final Draft). 

FM 6-40. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Field Artillery Manual Cannon 
Gunnery. 23 April 1996. 

FM 6-50. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for the Field Artillery Cannon 
Battery. 23 December 1996. 

FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Graphics. 30 September 1997. 

FM 20-400. Military Environmental Protection (Initial Draft). February 1998. 

FM 100-14. Risk Management, 23 April 1998. 

TM 9-2350-314-10. Operator's Manual Howitzer, Medium, Self-P rope! led 155 
Millimeter M109A6, 8 February 1999 with Change 1 dated April 2000. 

DOCUMENTS NEEDED 

These documents must be avail able to the intended users of this publication. 

ARTEP 6-115-MTP. Mission Training Plan for the Field Artillery Command and 
Staff Section, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, and Service 
Battery. 1 April 2000. 

DA Form 581 Request for Issue and Turn-In of Ammunition. August 1989. 

DA Form 1156. Casualty Feeder Report. J une 1966. 

DA Form 1594. Daily Staff J ournal or Duty Officer's Log. November 1962. 

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 
1974. 

DA Form 2408-4. Weapon Record Data. J anuary 1979. 

DA Form 4446. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Level, Transit, and 
General Survey Record Book. 1 November 1975. 

DA Form 4513. Record of Missions Fired. M ay 1976. 

DA Form 5699-R. Howitzer RangeCard. August 1988. 

DA Form 5969-R. Section Chief s Report. October 1990. 

STP 6-13B1-SM. Cannon Crewman. 30J anuary 1998. 



Bibliography-1 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



STP 6-13B24-SM-TG. Cannon Crewman. 6 February 1998. 

STP 6-13C 14-SM-TG. Automated Fire Support System Specialist. 10 November 
1997 

STP 6-13F 14-SM-TG. FireSupport Specialist. 27 J anuary 1998. 

RECOMMENDED READING 

These readings contain relevant supplemental information. 

AR 200-1, Environmental Protection and Enhancement. 21 February 1997. 

AR 200-2. Environmental Effects of Army Actions. 23 December 1988. 

AR 672-5-1. Military Awards. 12 April 1984. 

FM 3-4. NBC Protection. 29 M ay 1992. 

FM 3-5. NBC Contamination. 17 November 1993. 

FM 3-7. NBC Field Handbook. 29 September 1994. 

FM 3-100. Chemical Operations Principles and Fundamentals. 23 M ay 1991. 

FM 6-2. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Field Artillery Survey. 23 
September 1993. 

FM 6-20. Fire Support in the AirL and Battle 17 May 1988. 

FM 6-20-2. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Corps Artillery, Division 
Artillery, and Field Artillery Brigade Headquarters. 7 J anuary 1993. 

F M 6-20-10. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for the Targeting Process. 8 M ay 
1996 

FM 6-20-20. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Fire Support at Battalion 
Task Force and Below. 27 December 1991. 

FM 6-20-30. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for FireSupport for Corps and 
Division Operations. 18 October 1989. 

FM 6-20-40. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Fire Support for Brigade 
Operations (Heavy). 5 J anuary 1990. 

FM 6-20-50. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Fire Support for Brigade 
Operations (Light). 5 J anuary 1990. 

FM 6-30. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Observed Fire Procedures. 16 
J uly 1991. 

FM 6-60. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Multiple Launch Rocket System 
(MLRS) Operations. 23 April 1996. 

FM 6-71. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for FireSupport for the Combined 
Arms Commander. 29 September 1994. 

FM 6-121. Tactics, Techniques and Procedures for Field Artillery Target 
Acquisition. 25 September 1990. 

FM 7-7J . Mechanized Infantry Platoon and Squad (Bradley). 7 M ay 1993. 



Bibliography-2 



FM 3-09.70 (6-70) 



FM 8-10-6. Medical Evacuation in a Theater of Operations Tactics, Techniques 
and Procedures. 13 October 1991. 

FM 11-32. Combat Net Radio Operations. 15 October 1990. 

FM 11-55. Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) Operations. 22 J unel999. 

FM 17-15. Tank Platoon. 3 April 1996. 

FM 17-95. Cavalry Operations. 24 December 1996. 

FM 17-98. Scout Platoon. 9 September 1994. 

FM 17-98-1. Scout Leader's Handbook. 24 September 1990. 

FM 21-10. Field Hygiene and Sanitation. 20 November 1988. 

FM 21-26. Map Reading and Land Navigation. 7 M ay 1993. 

FM 21-60. Visual Signals. 30 September 1987. 

FM 22-100. Army Leadership. 17 May 1999. 

FM 23-65. Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2. 19 J unel991. 

FM 71-l.Tank and Mechanized I nfantry Company Team. 26J anuary 1998. 

FM 71-2. The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force. 27 
September 1988. 

FM 71-3. TheArmored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade. 8 J anuary 1996. 

FM 71-123. Tactics and Techniques for Combined Arms Heavy Forces: Armored 
Brigade, Battalion/ Task Force, and Company/ Team. 30 September 1992. 

FM 90-10. Military Operations on Urban Terrain. 15 August 1979. 

FM 100-5. Operations. 14 J une 1993. 

FM 100-6. / n formation Operations. 27 August 1996. 

FM 101-5. Staff Organization and Operations. 31 May 1997. 

FM 101-5-2. US Army Report and Message Formats. 29 J une 1999. 

TB 43-0134. Battery Disposition and Disposal. 

TC 5-400. Unit Leaders' Handbook for Environmental Stewardship. 29 
September 1994. 

TM 38-410. Storage and Handli ng of Hazardous Materials. 29 May 1992. 

TM 43-0001-28-13. Artillery Ammunition: Authorized Projectile, Fuze, and 
Propelling Charge Combinations for Howitzer, Medium, Self-Propel led, 
155mm: M109A5-A6 with Cannon M284. 15 September 1994. 



Bibliography-3 



FM 3-09.70 
1 AUGUST 2000 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 



ERICK. SHINSEKI 
General, United States Army 
Official: Chief of Staff 



• jOEL B.HUDSON 
Administrative Assistant to the 
Secretary of the Army 

0022103 



DISTRIBUTION: 

Active Army, Army National Guard, and U. S. Army Reserve: To be 
distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 1 15823, 
requirements for FM 3-09.70. 



PIN: 078445-000